Main Article Content
A locally developed autogenous single screw extruder was used to investigate the process for screw extrusion of the flour and starch of cassava, in a bid to find alternate uses for the commodity. The experiment was conducted with a factorial design and completely randomized. Analysis of Variance and Tukey Honestly Significant Difference methods were utilized as follow up test to check the result of extrusion variables: feed moisture (25, 30, 40%) and extruder temperature built up by varying the duration of sampling (2, 10, 18, 24, 30 minutes) on some product quality attributes and system parameters. The product quality attributes considered include water absorption index (WAI) and water solubility index (WSI), product moisture (PQ_MC), transverse expansion (ExR), cold and hot paste viscosities (CPV and HPV), Melt viscosity (MV) and strength properties of extrudates (CP) while the system parameters are product temperature (PT), mean residence time (MRT), and specific energy input (SME). All system parameters PT, MRT and SME varied directly with duration of operation. Also, PQ_MC, CP, WAI, WSI, MV, CPV and HPV varied reciprocally whereas ExR, and MV varied directly with duration of operation. The extrudates’ water loss is directly proportional with ExR. It was observed that extruded cassava starch was less stable than cassava flour extrudates. Moreover, the specific end uses to which the extruded products can be put were identified. All the treatments and their interactions are highly significant (P ≤ 0.001).
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
With the submission of a manuscript, the corresponding author confirms that the manuscript is not under consideration by another journal. With the acceptance of a manuscript, the Journal reserves the exclusive right of publication and dissemination of the information contained in the article. The veracity of the paper and all the claims therein is solely the opinion of the authors not the journal.
Altan, A. and Maskan, M. 2016. Development of Extruded foods by utilizing food industry by-products. In Maskan, M. and Altan, A .(Eds.) (2016). Advances in Food Extrusion Technology pp. 121-168. CRC Press Boca Raton.
Amani, N. G., Buleon, A., Kamenana, A. and Colona, P. 2004. ‘‘Variability in starch physicochemical and functional properties of yam cultivated in Ivory Coast. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 84 (15), 2086-2096.
Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists Approved Methods. 1995. Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington D. C. pp.710.
Arambula, V. G., Gonzalez-Hernandez, J., Moreno, M. E., and Ordorica, F. C. A. 2002. Characteristics of tortillas prepared from dry extruded masa flour added with maize pericarp. Journal of Food Science. 67 (4), 1447-1452.
Camire, M. E. 2016. Nutritional changes during extrusion cooking. In Maskan, M. and Altan, A.(Eds.) (2016). Advances in Food Extrusion Technology pp. 87 - 102. CRC Press Boca Raton.
Chandrasekara, A. and Kumar, J. K. 2016. Roots and tuber crops as functional foods: A review on phytochemical constituents and their potential health benefits. International Journal of Food Science, Article 3631647, https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/3631647.
Chang, K. C. and Halek, G. W., 2006. Analysis of Shear and Thermal History during Co-rotating Twin-Screw Extrusion. Journal of Food Science 56 (2) : 518 - 531 .
Chessari, C. J.and Sellahewa, J. N. 2001. Effective process control. In Guy, R (2001) (Ed.) Extrusion Cooking Technologies and Applications. (pp. 83 - 105). Wood Head Publishing Limited and CRC press LLC, Cambridge, England.
Chi-Chuang, G. C., and Yeh, A., 2004. Effect of screw profile on residence time distribution and starch gelatinization of rice flour during single screw extrusion cooking. Journal of Food Engineering. 63 (1), 21–31.
Danshy M. Y., and Bovell, B. 2003. Physical Properties and Sixth Graders’ Acceptance of an Extruded Ready-A Response Surface Analysis. Journal of Food Engineering. 38, 369-379. (no issue no)
Enesi, R. O, Hauser, S., Pypers, P., Kreye, C., Tariku, M. and Six, J. 2021. Understanding changes in cassava root dry matter yield by different planting dates, crop ages at harvest, fertilizer application and varieties, European Journal of Agronomy, Volume 133, Article 126448, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eja.2021.126448.
Fayose, F. T., Ogunlowo, A. S. and Agbetoye, L. A. (2017). The design, fabrication and preliminary testing of an indigenous single screw extruder. Journal of Engineering Science and Technology, 12 (10), 2585 – 2598.
Fayose, F. T. and Huan, Z., 2012. Effect of extrusion processing conditions of a locally developed extruder on the product temperature of selected starch crops. Journal of Natural Sciences, Engineering and Technology, 2 (2), 144 -155.
Fellows P. J. 2009. Food processing technology: principle and practice. Elsevier Science. Amsterdam Netherlands. (A texbook)
Guan, J. and Hanna, M. A. 2004. Functional properties of extruded foam composites of starch acetylate and corn cob fiber. Indutrial Crops and Production 19, 255-269.
Gujska, E. and Khan, K. 1990. Effect of temperature on properties of extrudates from high starch fractions of navy, pinto and garbanzo beans. Journal of Food Science 55(2), 466-468.
Guy, R., 2001. (Ed) Extrusion Cooking Technologies and Applications. Wood Head Publishing Limited and CRC press LLC, Cambridge, England.
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture. Cassava (Manihot esculenta). IITA Crops News. Available at http://www.iita.org/cropsnew/cassava.
International Starch 2005. Memorandum on Tapioca (Cassava) Starch, International Starch Institute, Science Park Aarhus, Denmark.
Lo, T. E., Moreira, R. G. and Castell – Perez, M. E. 1998. Modeling product quality during twins – screw food extrusion. Transaction. of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers 41(6), 1729 – 1738.
McCarthy, K . L, Rauch,D . J. and Krochta, J. M. 2016. Rheological properties of materials during the extrusion process. In Maskan, M. and Altan, A.(Eds.) (2016). Advances in Food Extrusion Technology pp. 103 - 120. CRC Press Boca Raton.
Nrema, G. C., Gumbe, L. O., Chepete, H. J., and Agullo, J. O. 2011. Rural structures in the Tropics: design and development. FAO.(A test book)
Oke, M., Awonorin, S. O., and Workney, T. S. 2013. Expansion ratio of extruded water yam (Dioscorea alata) starches using a single screw extruder. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 8(9), 750-762.
Okon A. 2017. Cassava glut: Farmers, processors squabble over prices. The Punch Newspaper. Available at http://www.punchng.com/cassava glut:farmers processors squabble over prices.
Olusegun, A. A., Stephen, A. A. and Folasade, B. I. 2016. Effect of extrusion conditions on cassava/soybean extrudates. MOJ Food Process Technology 3(1): 237-245. https://doi.org/10.15406/mojfpt.2016.03.00062.
Osungbade, O. R., Gbadamosi, O. S. and Adiamo, O. Q. 2016. Effects of cooking and fermentation on the chemical composition, functional properties and protein digestibility of sandbox (Hura Crepitans) seeds. Journal of Food Biochemistry 40(6): 754-765. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.12273
Research Program on Root Tuber and Banana. 2016. New technologies make cassava processing more efficient and sustainable. News, Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research https://www.rtb.cgiar.org/news/new-technologies-make-cassava-processing-more-efficient-and-sustainable.
Sebio, L. and Chang Y. K. (2000). Effects of selected process parameters in extrusion of yam flour (Dioscorea rotundata) on physicochemical properties of the extrudates. Food/Nahrung 44 (2), 96 - 101.
Seker, M. 2005. Residence time distributions of starch with high moisture content in a single-screw extruder. Journal of Food Engineering 67 (3) , 317–324.
Ume, S. I., Onwujiariri, U. J. and Nwaneri, T. C. 2020. Effect of cassava processing to the environment in South East, Nigeria - implication on adoption of cassava processing technology. Sustainable Food Production. 9, pp. 1 – 14, https://doi.org/10.18052/www.scipress.com/SFP.9.1 2020 SciPress Ltd, Switzerland
Viduranga, Y. W., 2018. Public perception of biotechnology. In: Y.W. Viduranga, (Ed.) Cassava. IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.70324. Available from: https://www.intechopen.com/chapters/56558.
Yisa, M., 2009. Mechanization: way forward. Lead paper Presentation. 9th Nigeria Institution of Agricultural Engineers Conference 2009,Yola, Nigeria
Zweytick G. (2008): Wheat Crisps - Extrusion Cooking Technology. In Margarida Vieira, Peter Ho Eds., Experiments in Unit Operations and Processing of Foods 5, 143-149; Springer, New York; ISBN 978-0-387-33513-1