• I. F. Titiladunayo, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria
  • I. O. Nenuwa Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo. Ondo State. Nigeria



Biomass, Charcoal, Sawdust briquette, Energy fuel


A biomass fired dryer using charcoal and sawdust briquettes as fuels is designed and produced by this study, to improve plantain shelf life, make it available all the year round, minimize postharvest losses, regulate unattractive low commodity pricing during peak harvest season, enhance productivity and add value to commodity. It consists of a heating chamber with integrated ash tray, drying chamber and two drying trays, spaced 130 mm apart. Warm air circulates in the drying chamber by natural draught, while the air for fuel combustion is by forced convection. A batch size of (2 and 4 kg) of plantain chips were dried at temperatures of 80 and, 100°C in three replicating experiments using 0.150 kg of the selected fuels independently. At an ambient temperature of 30.4°C and relative humidity (RH) of 83.6% charcoal and sawdust briquette fuels attained a mean temperature () of (140 and 134), with a burnout time () of (240.6 and 237.7) respectively, under no load. The average drying time () for sliced plantain chips was 120 minutes for 2 kg at 80 and 150 min for 4 kg at 100°C respectively for both fuels, as against open air sun drying, that could take days to accomplish due to unpredictable weather conditions. An average drying rate ()  of 0.0059 kg/min ( 0.9338) and  0.2082 kg/min ( 0.909) was achieved on the drier with charcoal (Ch) as fuel, while; 0.0058 kg/min ( 0.9322) and 0.2111 kg/min ( 0.9245) was obtained with sawdust briquette (Cs) as fuel at 80 and 100 drying temperatures respectively. The moisture content (MC) of the chips also reduced from 61% to (11.8  MC  11.6%) and (7  MC  6%) respectively, at 80°C and 100°C drying temperatures for both fuels. The proximate analysis of the dried chips indicates a decrease in its protein content with corresponding increase in crude fiber and ash content across temperatures, yet without total loss of nutrients. The dryer successfully utilized the selected fuels for plantain drying and could serve as an effective tool in drying other farm produce.  


Abubakar S.S. (2009). Strategic Development in Renewable Energy in Nigeria – International Association for Energy Economic pp. 15-1. Accessed on March 6th, 2022

Adepoju, O.T., Sunday, B. E and Folarami, O.A. (2012). Nutrient Compositions and Contributions of Plantain Products to Dietary Diversity of Nigerian Consumers. Afri Journal Biotech 11(71): 13601 – 13605

Adithya, S,. Muthamilselvi, P., Ponnusamy, S. and Ashish, K (2021). Food Preservation Techniques and Nanotechnology for Increased Shelf Life of Fruits, Vegetables,

Beverages and Spices: a review. Environmental Chemistry Letters. 19:1715–1735.

Agoreyo B. O; Akpiroroh, O, Orukpe, O. A, Osaweren, O. R and Owabor, C.N. (2011). The Effects of Various Drying Methods on the Nutritional Composition of Musaparadisical, dioscorea rotundata and colocasia esculenta, Asian Journal of Biochemistry, (616): 458 -484.

Ajieh, M. U., Owebor, K., Edomwonyi-Otu, L. C., and Okafor, I .F (2021): Integration of perennial grass into energy mix as alternative to fuelwood in selected Niger Delta communities, Nigeria. Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery. Accessed: 27/03/2022

ASTM (2020): Standard test methods for direct moisture content measurement of wood and wood base materials (D 4442 – 20). Annual Book of ASTM Standards 04.10, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

Ayanwale A.B, Fatunbi A.O and Ojo M (2016): Innovation Opportunities in Plantain Production in Nigeria. Guide Book 1. Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa (FARA), Accra Ghana. Website: Accessed: 27/03/2022

Awulu, J. O., Omale, P. A and Ameh, J. A (2018). Comparative Analysis of Calorific Values of Selected Agricultural Wastes. Nigerian Journal of Technology. 37 (4): 1141–1146.

Bassey, M.W., (1980). The use of Sawdust for Small Scale Energy Application: Invention Journal of Ambient Energy. 4 (1): 39-45

Ceankoplis, C. J., (1993). Transport Process and UnitOperations. 3rd Edition. Prentice Hall, EnglewoodCliffs pp: 508-512

Charles, T., Wilhelmina, Q., Paa, T.A., Charlotte, O.Y., Evelyn, S.B. and Nana, Y. A. (2020): Biomass-based value chain analysis of plantain in two regions in Ghana. African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation, and Development. Pp 213-222.

Delphine, A., Esme, S., Djana, M., Rony, S., and Bela, T. (2020): End-user preferences for plantain food products in Nigeria and implications for genetic improvement. International Journal of Food Science and Technology

Devan, P. K., Bibin, C. I., Shabrin, R. A, Gokulnath, D. K (2020): Solar drying of fruits – A comprehensive review. Materials Today: Proceedings.

Emperatriz, P.O. Ronald,M; Elvins,S and Mily,S (2008). Production and characterization of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiacal L) flours. Intercienca (32):290-296

Energypedia (2022): Cooking with Charcoal. Accessed: March 6th, 2022

Ezekiel, O.O., Akinoso, R. and Olaoye, D.J. (2012). Design, Fabrication and Evaluation of a Plantain Roaster. Nigerian Food Journal. 30(1): 138-2012.

FAOSTAT (2010): Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations: 28-30.

Foley, G. (1986): Charcoal making in Developing Countries. Industrial Institute for Environment and Development. London.13

Hassan, S.W., Umar, H.M. Maishanu, I.K. Matazu, U.Z. Faruk and A.A. Sani,(2007): The effect of drying method on the nutrients and non-nutrient composition of leaves of Gynandropsosis gynandra. Asian J. Biochem; 2:349 – 353

Hii, C. L., Ong, S. P., Chiang, C. L., and Menon, A.S (2019): A review of quality characteristics of solar dried food crop products. International Conference on Food Science & Technology. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science

INIBAP (1992): International Network for the improvement of banana and plantain. Annual report 1992.Montpellier France P.48.

Isah, A.D., Adamu, Y., Shamaki, S.B., Buda, S., Muhammad, M., Abubakar, M.S and Lawal, U.A (2021). Assessment of Quantity and Typology of Wood Species Used in the Production of Charcoal in Kaduna, Nigeria. Network for Research and Development in Africa. International Journal of Pure and Applied Science Research. 12 (2): 166-172.

Marina, V. Z, Baishali, D., Donald, G. M., Heather L. M. and Marianne, F. T. (2019): Assessment of moisture content measurement methods of dried food products in small-scale operations in developing countries: A review. Trend in Food Science and Technology (88) 484 – 496.

Ogunwusi, A.A (2014): Wood Waste Generation in the Forest Industry in Nigeria and

Prospects for Its Industrial Utilization. Civil and Environmental Research. International Institute for Science, Technology and Education 6(9):62-69.

Oriaku E. C, Onu C. C., Odenigbo J. O., Ibeagha D. C., Adizue U. L., and Aburu C. M (2017): Waste to Wealth: Conversion of Sawdust to Useful Energy. World Journal of Engineering Research and Technology. 3(6): 395 – 405.

Patchimaporn, U., Cargele, M., Rony, S., Bhundit, I., Apollin, F. K., Amos, A., Jules, L., Dorcas, O. I. and Bernard, V. (2021): Consumer Preferences and Socioeconomic Factors Decided on Plantain and Plantain-Based Products in the Central Region of Cameroon and Oyo State, Nigeria. Foods 10 (8), 1955

Saeed, T.E. Sopian, K. and Abidin, Z.Z. (2008). Drying characteristic of Roselle (1): Mathematical modeling and drying experiments, Agricultural Engineering International: The CIGR E Journal Manuscript FP 08015.

Segun R.B. Adegbulugbe T.A., Onyekwere P.S.N. (2013). Comparative study on utilization of charcoal, sawdust and rice husk in heating oven. Agricultural Engineering International IGR Journal 12 (2): 29 – 33

Swennen, R, (1990): Plantain cultivation under West African Conditions: Reference manual, Amorin printing Co.,Bangkok.

The Plantain Council (2022): About the Plantain: Top 10 Plantain Producing countries. Accessed: 27/03/2022

Titiladunayo, I. F., McDonald, A. G and Fapetu, O. P (2013): Development of a Fixed-Bed Pyrolysis Reactor from Local Materials for Thermochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass. Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy. 7(3):336-347

Titiladunayo, I. F., McDonald, A. G and Fapetu, O. P (2012): Effect of temperature on biochar product yield from selected lignocellulosic biomass in a pyrolysis process. Journal of waste and biomass Valorization. 3:311-318

Zepeda-Cepeda, C. O., Goche-Télles, J. R., Palacios-Mendoza, C., Moreno-Anguiano, O., Núñez-Retana, V. D., Heya, M. N., and Carrillo-Parra, A. (2021): Effect of Sawdust Particle Size on Physical, Mechanical, and Energetic Properties of Pinus durangensis Briquettes. Applied Science, 11, 3805.