Main Article Content
Pre-treatment technique of biomass for cellulose nanofiber isolation is very significant on its properties. Several techniques have been used for pre-treatment of biomass, however much has not been done on the use of combined pre-treatment for Cellulose Nanofibre (CNF) isolations. The use of enzymes has been attached to the extraction of ethanol from biomass. In this study, a critical review of the application of combine mechanical-enzymes in isolation of CNF was discussed. A parametric study of factors that influence the output of mechanical and enzymatic hydrolysis was done with reference to previous work in this area. The review concluded by assessing the viability of enzymatic hydrolysis in combination with other techniques for successful isolation of cellulose nanofibre
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
With the submission of a manuscript, the corresponding author confirms that the manuscript is not under consideration by another journal. With the acceptance of a manuscript, the Journal reserves the exclusive right of publication and dissemination of the information contained in the article. The veracity of the paper and all the claims therein is solely the opinion of the authors not the journal.
Abdul Khalil, H., Adnan, A., Yahya, E. B., Olaiya, N., Safrida, S., Hossain, M., Balakrishnan, V., Gopakumar, D. A., Abdullah, C. and
Oyekanmi, A. (2020): "A Review on plant cellulose nanofibre-based aerogels for biomedical applications". Polymers, 12, 1759.
Abral, H., Chairani, M. K., Rizki, M. D., Mahardika, M., Handayani, D., Sugiarti, E., Muslimin, A. N., Sapuan, S. and Ilyas, R. (2021):
"Characterization of compressed bacterial cellulose nanopaper film after exposure to dry and humid conditions". Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 11, 896-904.
Alemdar, A. and Sain, M. (2008): "Isolation and characterization of nanofibers from agricultural residues–Wheat straw and soy hulls". Bioresource technology, 99, 1664-1671.
Alle, M., Bandi, R., Lee, S.-H. and Kim, J.-C. (2020). "Recent trends in isolation of cellulose nanocrystals and nanofibrils from various forest wood and nonwood products and their application". Nanomaterials for Agriculture and Forestry Applications. Elsevier.
Bhatnagar, A. and Sain, M. (2005): "Processing of cellulose nanofiber-reinforced composites". Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, 24, 1259-1268.
Chang, V. S. and Holtzapple, M. T. (Year): Published. "Fundamental factors affecting biomass enzymatic reactivity". Twenty-first symposium on biotechnology for fuels and chemicals, 2000. Springer, 5-37.
Chauhan, P. S. (2020): "Lignin nanoparticles: eco-friendly and versatile tool for new era". Bioresource Technology Reports, 9, 100374.
Cherian, B. M., Leão, A. L., De Souza, S. F., Costa, L. M. M., De Olyveira, G. M., Kottaisamy, M., Nagarajan, E. and Thomas, S. (2011):
"Cellulose nanocomposites with nanofibres isolated from pineapple leaf fibers for medical applications". Carbohydrate Polymers, 86, 1790-1798.
Chinga-Carrasco, G. (2011): "Cellulose fibres, nanofibrils and microfibrils: The morphological sequence of MFC components from a plant physiology and fibre technology point of view". Nanoscale research letters, 6, 1-7.
Dhankhar, P. (2014): "Homogenization fundamentals". IOSR Journal of Engineering, 4, 8.
Eichhorn, S. J., Dufresne, A., Aranguren, M., Marcovich, N., Capadona, J., Rowan, S. J., Weder, C., Thielemans, W., Roman, M. and
Renneckar, S. (2010): "Current international research into cellulose nanofibres and nanocomposites". Journal of materials science, 45, 1-33.
Espinosa, E., Bascón-Villegas, I., Rosal, A., Pérez-Rodríguez, F., Chinga-Carrasco, G. and Rodríguez, A. (2019): "PVA/(ligno) nanocellulose
biocomposite films. Effect of residual lignin content on structural, mechanical, barrier and antioxidant properties". International journal
of biological macromolecules, 141, 197-206.
Fahma, F., Iwamoto, S., Hori, N., Iwata, T. and Takemura, A. (2010): "Isolation, preparation, and characterization of nanofibers from oil palm empty-fruit-bunch (OPEFB)". Cellulose, 17, 977-985.
Fatah, I. Y. A., Khalil, H., Hossain, M., Aziz, A. A., Davoudpour, Y., Dungani, R. and Bhat, A. (2014): "Exploration of a chemo-mechanical technique for the isolation of nanofibrillated cellulosic fiber from oil palm empty fruit bunch as a reinforcing agent in composites materials". Polymers, 6, 2611-2624.
Hedayati, M., Salehi, M., Bagheri, R., Panjepour, M. and Maghzian, A. (2011): "Ball milling preparation and characterization of poly (ether ether ketone)/surface modified silica nanocomposite". Powder Technology, 207, 296-303.
Henriksson, M., Berglund, L. A., Isaksson, P., Lindstrom, T. and Nishino, T. (2008): "Cellulose nanopaper structures of high toughness". Biomacromolecules, 9, 1579-1585.
Hermawan, D., Lai, T. K., Jafarzadeh, S., Gopakumar, D. A., Hasan, M., Owolabi, F. T., Aprilia, N. S., Rizal, S. and Khalil, H. A. (2019): "Development of seaweed-based bamboo microcrystalline cellulose films intended for sustainable food packaging applications". BioResources, 14, 3389-3410.
Huq, T., Salmieri, S., Khan, A., Khan, R. A., Le Tien, C., Riedl, B., Fraschini, C., Bouchard, J., Uribe-Calderon, J. and Kamal, M. R. (2012): "Nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) reinforced alginate based biodegradable nanocomposite film". Carbohydrate polymers, 90, 1757-1763.
Janardhnan, S. and Sain, M. M. (2011): "Targeted disruption of hydroxyl chemistry and crystallinity in natural fibers for the isolation of cellulose nano-fibers via enzymatic treatment". BioResources, 6, 1242-1250.
Jawaid, M. and Khalil, H. A. (2011): "Cellulosic/synthetic fibre reinforced polymer hybrid composites: A review". Carbohydrate polymers, 86, 1-18.
Jonoobi, M., Harun, J., Tahir, P. M., Shakeri, A., Saifulazry, S. and Makinejad, M. D. (2011): "Physicochemical characterization of pulp and nanofibers from kenaf stem". Materials letters, 65, 1098-1100.
Kam, D., Chasnitsky, M., Nowogrodski, C., Braslavsky, I., Abitbol, T., Magdassi, S. and Shoseyov, O. (2019): "Direct Cryo Writing of
Aerogels via 3D Printing of Aligned Cellulose Nanocrystals Inspired by the Plant Cell Wall". Colloids and Interfaces, 3, 46.
Khalil, H., Jummaat, F., Yahya, E. B., Olaiya, N., Adnan, A., Abdat, M., Nam, N., Halim, A. S., Kumar, U. and Bairwan, R. (2020): "A review on micro-to nanocellulose biopolymer scaffold forming for tissue engineering applications". Polymers, 12, 2043.
Khalil, H. A., Bhat, I., Jawaid, M., Zaidon, A., Hermawan, D. and Hadi, Y. (2012): "Bamboo fibre reinforced biocomposites: A review". Materials & Design, 42, 353-368.
Kolakovic, R., Peltonen, L., Laukkanen, A., Hirvonen, J. and Laaksonen, T. (2012): "Nanofibrillar cellulose films for controlled drug delivery". European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 82, 308-315.
Kumar, A. P., Depan, D., Tomer, N. S. and Singh, R. P. (2009): "Nanoscale particles for polymer degradation and stabilization—trends and future perspectives". Progress in polymer science, 34, 479-515.
Kumar, A. P. and Singh, R. P. (2008): "Biocomposites of cellulose reinforced starch: Improvement of properties by photo-induced crosslinking". Bioresource Technology, 99, 8803-8809.
Kumar, K. P. and Sekaran, A. S. J. (2014): "Some natural fibers used in polymer composites and their extraction processes: A review". Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, 33, 1879-1892.
Lavoine, N., Desloges, I., Dufresne, A. and Bras, J. (2012): "Microfibrillated cellulose–Its barrier properties and applications in cellulosic materials: A review". Carbohydrate polymers, 90, 735-764.
Le Troedec, M., Sedan, D., Peyratout, C., Bonnet, J. P., Smith, A., Guinebretiere, R., Gloaguen, V. and Krausz, P. (2008): "Influence of various chemical treatments on the composition and structure of hemp fibres". Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 39, 514-522.
Luo, X. and Wang, X. (2017): "Preparation and characterization of nanocellulose fibers from NaOH/Urea pretreatment of oil palm fibers". BioResources, 12, 5826-5837.
Luu, T., Richmond, F., Bilodeau, M. and Bousfield, W. (Year): Published. "Nano-fibrillated cel-lulose as a paper surface treatment for inkjet printing. Nano-fibrillated cellulose as a paper surface treatment for inkjet printing". TAPPI international conference on nanotechnology for renewable materials, Arlington, USA, 2011.
Ma, L., Zhang, Y. and Wang, S. (2017): "Preparation and characterization of acrylonitrile‐butadiene‐styrene nanocomposites reinforced with cellulose nanocrystal via solution casting method". Polymer Composites, 38, E167-E173.
Martelli-Tosi, M., Torricillas, M. D. S., Martins, M. A., Assis, O. B. G. D. and Tapia-Blácido, D. R. (2016): "Using commercial enzymes to produce cellulose nanofibers from soybean straw". Journal of Nanomaterials, 2016.
Muhamad, M., Hornsby, P., Carmichael, E., Zakaria, M., Seok, Y. B., Mohamed, S. and Sharma, S. (Year): Published. "Characterisation of cellulose nanofibres derived from chemical and mechanical treatments". MATEC Web of Conferences, 2019. EDP Sciences, 01002.
Murphy, C. A. and Collins, M. N. (2018): "Microcrystalline cellulose reinforced polylactic acid biocomposite filaments for 3D printing". Polymer Composites, 39, 1311-1320.
Pérez, J. A., González, A., Oliva, J. M., Ballesteros, I. and Manzanares, P. (2007): "Effect of process variables on liquid hot water pretreatment of wheat straw for bioconversion to fuel‐ethanol in a batch reactor". Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology: International Research in Process, Environmental & Clean Technology, 82, 929-938.
Qing, Y., Sabo, R., Zhu, J., Cai, Z. and Wu, Y. (2013): "Comparative study of cellulose nanofibrils Disintegrated from different Approaches". In Proceedings of Advancements in Fiber-Polymer Composites: Wood Fiber, Natural Fibers, and Nanocellulose, May 6-7, 2013, Milwaukee, WI; 2013; 3 p., 1-3.
Ramesh, M., Palanikumar, K. and Reddy, K. H. (2017): "Plant fibre based bio-composites: Sustainable and renewable green materials". Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 79, 558-584.
Sehaqui, H., Ezekiel Mushi, N., Morimune, S., Salajkova, M., Nishino, T. and Berglund, L. A. (2012): "Cellulose nanofiber orientation in nanopaper and nanocomposites by cold drawing". ACS applied materials & interfaces, 4, 1043-1049.
Sharma, A., Thakur, M., Bhattacharya, M., Mandal, T. and Goswami, S. (2019): "Commercial application of cellulose nano-composites–A review". Biotechnology Reports, 21, e00316.
Shimotoyodome, A., Suzuki, J., Kumamoto, Y., Hase, T. and Isogai, A. (2011): "Regulation of postprandial blood metabolic variables by TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibers". Biomacromolecules, 12, 3812-3818.
Siró, I., Plackett, D., Hedenqvist, M., Ankerfors, M. and Lindström, T. (2011): "Highly transparent films from carboxymethylated microfibrillated cellulose: the effect of multiple homogenization steps on key properties". Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 119, 2652-2660.
Sudesh, K. and Iwata, T. (2008): "Sustainability of biobased and biodegradable plastics". CLEAN–Soil, Air, Water, 36, 433-442.
Sulaiman, M. S., Ramle, S. F. M., Hashim, R., Sulaiman, O., Amini, M. and Geng, B. (2018): "The classical mechanics engineered of Bambusa vulgaris and Schizostachyum brachycladum". Journal of Tropical Resources and Sustainable Science, 6, 57-61.
Tang, X., Kumar, P., Alavi, S. and Sandeep, K. (2012): "Recent advances in biopolymers and biopolymer-based nanocomposites for food packaging materials". Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 52, 426-442.
Thambiraj, S. and Shankaran, D. R. (2017): "Preparation and physicochemical characterization of cellulose nanocrystals from industrial waste cotton". Applied Surface Science, 412, 405-416.
Tribot, A., Amer, G., Alio, M. A., De Baynast, H., Delattre, C., Pons, A., Mathias, J.-D., Callois, J.-M., Vial, C. and Michaud, P. (2019): "Wood-lignin: Supply, extraction processes and use as bio-based material". European Polymer Journal, 112, 228-240.
Wang, S. and Cheng, Q. (2009): "A novel process to isolate fibrils from cellulose fibers by high‐intensity ultrasonication, Part 1: Process optimization". Journal of applied polymer science, 113, 1270-1275.
Wang, Z., Yao, Z., Zhou, J. and Zhang, Y. (2017): "Reuse of waste cotton cloth for the extraction of cellulose nanocrystals". Carbohydrate Polymers, 157, 945-952.
Yousefi, H., Faezipour, M., Hedjazi, S., Mousavi, M. M., Azusa, Y. and Heidari, A. H. (2013): "Comparative study of paper and nanopaper properties prepared from bacterial cellulose nanofibers and fibers/ground cellulose nanofibers of canola straw". Industrial Crops and Products, 43, 732-737.
Zhang, D., Cai, J., Xu, W., Dong, Q., Li, Y., Liu, G. and Wang, Z. (2019): "Synthesis, characterization and adsorption property of cellulose nanofiber-based hydrogels". Journal of Forestry Engineering, 4, 92-98.
Zhang, Q., Lei, H., Cai, H., Han, X., Lin, X., Qian, M., Zhao, Y., Huo, E., Villota, E. M. and Mateo, W. (2020): "Improvement on the properties of microcrystalline cellulose/polylactic acid composites by using activated biochar". Journal of Cleaner Production, 252, 119898.
Zhao, J., Zhang, W., Zhang, X., Zhang, X., Lu, C. and Deng, Y. (2013): "Extraction of cellulose nanofibrils from dry softwood pulp using high shear homogenization". Carbohydrate Polymers, 97, 695-702.
Zuluaga, R., Putaux, J. L., Cruz, J., Vélez, J., Mondragon, I. and Gañán, P. (2009): "Cellulose microfibrils from banana rachis: Effect of alkaline treatments on structural and morphological features". Carbohydrate Polymers, 76, 51-59.