FRACTURE BEHAVIOR AND MECHANICAL PERFORMANCE OF DISSIMILAR FRICTION STIR CLINCHED CU/AL JOINT

Main Article Content

O. O. Ojo
B. O. Ajayi

Abstract

The friction stir clinching (FSC) of C10100 and AA5456 alloys was investigated to improve the weld performance of the Al/Cu joint via the combined effect of protrusion-induced mechanical interlocking and metallurgical bonding. The microstructure, tensile, and fracture results of the friction stir clinched C10100/AA5456 joints were studied. The in-situ local temperature histories of the joints were recorded via the use of K-type thermocouples connected to a data logger. The peak temperatures of the joints at 900 rpm, 1120 rpm, and 1400 rpm are 332.4oC, 399.8oC, and 577.1oC respectively. The increase in the plunge depth (0.5 -1.5 mm) increases the amount of the extruded surface flash and the weld failure load of the joint while the increase in the tool rotational speed (900 - 1400 rpm) hampers the resultant failure load of the joint. The highest and the least failure loads of the joints are 2282 N and 1060 N respectively. The fracture modes of the joints include partially sheared protrusion, completely sheared protrusion, and undamaged protrusion/protrusion pullout. The completely sheared protrusion fracture mode produced the maximum failure load owing to the combined effect of protrusion-induced interlocking and metallurgical bonding. It is recommended to weld Al and Cu alloys at low tool rotational speed and high plunge depth for desirable metallurgical bond and Al/Cu interlock.

Article Details

Section
Articles

References

Akinlabi, E. T., Andrews, A. and Akinlabi, S. A. (2014). Effects of Processing Parameters on Corrosion Properties of Dissimilar Friction Stir Welds of Aluminum and Copper, Transaction of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 24: 1323-1330.

Akinlabi, E.T., Sanusi, K.O, Muzenda, E., and Akinlabi, S.A. (2017). Material Behavior Characterization of Friction Stir Spot Welding of Copper, Materials Today: Proceedings, 4: 166-177.

Bai, J., Paidar, M., Mehrez, S., Ojo, O. O., Nasution, M. K. M., Zain, A. M. (2022). Friction spot extrusion brazing of copper to AISI 304 stainless steel with Zn interlayer: effect of shoulder surface modification, Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, 22(2): 1-14

Chen, G., Liu, J., Dong, Z., Shu, X. and Zhang, B. (2020). Underlying reasons of poor mechanical performance of thick plate aluminum-copper alloy vacuum electron beam welded joints, Vacuum, 182: 109667

Fan, G., Paidar, M., Mehrez, S., Ojo, O. O., Liu, M., Dai, Y., Mahariq, I. (2022b). Influence of shoulder diameter on interfacial microstructure and mechanical behavior in dieless friction stir riveting of CP-Copper to 321 stainless steel, Vacuum, 197: 110809

Fan, G., Xue, C., Ojo, O. O., Bokov, D., Mehrez, S., Paidar, M., and Xu, J. (2022a). Positional variation of AA5083-H112 and AA6061-T6 alloys: Modified friction stir clinching, Vacuum, 196: 110712

Galvão, I., Oliveira, J.C., Loureiro, A. and Rodrigues, D.M. (2012). Formation and distribution of brittle structures in friction stir welding of aluminum and copper: Influence of shoulder geometry, Intermetallics, 22: 122-128

Galvão, I., Verdera, D., Gesto, D., Loureiro, A. and Rodrigues, D.M. (2013). Influence of aluminum alloy type on dissimilar friction stir lap welding of aluminum to copper, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 213: 1920-1928

Garg, A. and Bhattacharya, A. (2017). Similar and dissimilar joining of AA6061-T6 and copper by single and multisport friction stirring, Journal of Materials Processing Tech., 250: 330-344

Haiyan, Z. and Mehta, K. P. (2020). Effect of materials positioning on dissimilar modified friction stir clinching between aluminum 5754-O and 2024-T3 sheets, Vacuum, 178: 109445

Hou, W., Shah, L. H. A., Huang, G., Shen, Y., and Gerlich, A. (2020). The role of tool offset on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Al/Cu friction stir welded joints, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 825: 154045

Khojastehnezhad, V.M., and Pouras, H.H. (2018). Microstructural characterization and mechanical properties of aluminum 6061-T6 plates welded with copper insert plate (Al/Cu/Al) using friction stir welding, Transaction of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 28: 415-426

Kumar, N., Dhuria, G. K. and Singh, R. (2018). Evaluation of Tensile Strength in Friction Stir Welded Aluminum alloy 6101-T6 and commercially pure Copper joints, Materials Today: Proceedings, 5: 19230-19236

Li, G., Zhou, L., Zhou, W., Song, X. and Huang, Y. (2019). Influence of dwell time on microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of dissimilar friction stir spot welded aluminum–copper metals, Journal of Materials Research Technology, 8(3): 2613-2624

Mehta, K. P., and Badheka, V. J. (2017). Influence of tool pin design on properties of dissimilar copper to aluminum friction stir welding, Transaction of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 27: 36-54

Moaref, A. and Rabiezadeh, A. (2020). Microstructural evaluation and tribological properties of underwater friction stir processed CP-copper and its alloy, Transaction of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 30: 972-981

Mubiayi, M. P. and Akinlabi, E. T. (2016). Evolving properties of friction stir spot welds between AA1060 and commercially pure copper C11000, Transaction of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 26: 1852-1862

Mubiayi, M. P., Akinlabi, E. T. and Makhatha, M. E. (2018). Current state of friction stir spot welding between aluminum and copper, Materials Today: Proceedings, 5: 18633-18640

Mubiayi, M.P., and Akinlabi, E.T. (2017). Characterization of the intermetallic compounds in aluminum and copper friction stir spot welds, Materials Today: Proceedings, 4: 533-540

Muhammad, N. A., and Wu, C. S. (2020). Evaluation of capabilities of ultrasonic vibration on the surface, electrical and mechanical behaviors of aluminum to copper dissimilar friction stir welds, International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, 183: 105784

Muthu, M. F. X., and Jayabalan, V. (2015). Tool travel speed effects on the microstructure of friction stir welded aluminum–copper joints, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 217: 105-113

Ojo, O. O., and Ulkana, D. (2021). Optimization of pre-threaded and unthreaded-hole hybrid-friction stir spot welded aluminum/acrylonitrile butadiene styrene joints. Proceeding of Annual Conference of the School of Engineering & Engineering Technology, Akure, Nigeria, 337-353

Ojo, O.O., Taban, E. and Kaluc, E. (2015). Friction stir spot welding of aluminum alloys: A recent review, Materials Testing, 57: 609-627

Ojo, O.O., Taban, E. and Kaluc, E. (2018). Effect of residual Alclad on friction stir spot welds of AA2219 alloys, Materials Testing, 60: 979-988

Oladimeji, O.O., Taban, E. and Kaluc, E. (2016). Understanding the role of welding parameters and tool profile on the morphology and properties of expelled flash of spot welds, Materials & Design, 108: 518 - 528

Paidar, M., Bokov, D., Mehrez, S., Nasution, M. K.M., Ojo, O. O., Zain, A. M. (2022). The influence of the backing plate materials on microstructure and mechanical properties of friction spot extrusion brazing of AA2024-T3 aluminum alloy and Brass sheets, Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 74: 28-39

Paidar, M., Ghavamian, S., Ojo, O. O., Khorram, A. and Shahbaz, A. (2019a). Modified friction stir clinching of dissimilar AA2024-T3 to AA7075-T6: Effect of tool rotational speed and penetration depth, Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 47: 157 - 171

Paidar, M., Mehrez, S., Babaei, B., Memon, S., Ojo, O.O. and Lankarani H.M. (2021). Dissimilar welding of AA5083 to AZ31 Mg alloys using modified friction stir clinching brazing, Materials Letters, 301: 129764

Paidar, M., Ojo, O. O., Moghanian, A., Karapuzha, A. S. and Heidarzadeh, A. (2019b). Modified friction stir clinching with protuberance-keyhole leveling: A process for the production of welds with high strength, Journal of Manufacturing Processes, 41: 177 - 187

Paidar, M., Vignesh, R. V., Khorram, A., Ojo, O. O., Rasoulpouraghdam, A. and Pustokhina, I. (2020b). Dissimilar modified friction stir clinching of AA2024-AA6061 aluminum alloys: Effects of materials positioning, Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 9: 6037 - 6047

Paidar, M., Vignesh, R. V., Moharrami, A., Ojo, O.O., Jafari, A., and Sadreddini, S. (2020a). Development and characterization of the dissimilar joint between AA2024-T3 and AA6061-T6 by modified friction stir clinching process, Vacuum, 176: 109298

Panaskara, N. and Terkar, R. (2017). A Review on Recent Advances in Friction Stir Lap Welding of Aluminium and Copper, Materials Today: Proceedings, 4: 8387-8393

Rao, A.N., Naik, L.S. and Srinivas, C. (2017). Evaluation and Impacts of Tool Profile and Rotational Speed on Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded Copper 2200 Alloy, Materials Today: Proceedings, 4: 1225-1229

Rzaev, R., Chularis, A., Smirnov, V., and Semyenova, L. (2019). The Influence of the Friction Stir Welding Parameters on the Formation of Welded Joint of Aluminum and Copper Alloys, Materials Today: Proceedings, 11: 534-542

Shankar, S., Vilaça, P., Dash, P., Chattopadhyaya, S., and Hloch, S. (2019). Joint strength evaluation of friction stir welded Al-Cu dissimilar alloys, Measurement, 146: 892-902

Sharma, N., Khan, Z. A. and Siddiquee, A. N. (2017). Friction stir welding of aluminum to copper-An overview, Transaction of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 27: 2113-2136

Siddharth, S. and Senthilkumar, T. (2018). Development of friction stir spot welding windows for dissimilar Al5086/C10100 spot joints, Materials Today: Proceedings, 5: 6550-6559

Siddharth, S., Senthilkumar, T. and Chandrasekar, M. (2017). Development of processing windows for friction stir spot welding of aluminum Al5052 /copper C27200 dissimilar materials, Transaction of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 27: 1273-1284

Sinha, V.C., Kundu, S. and Chatterjee, S. (2016). Microstructure and mechanical properties of similar and dissimilar joints of aluminum alloy and pure copper by friction stir welding, Perspectives in Science, 8: 543-546

Xia-Wei, L., Da-tong, Z., Cheng, Q. and Wen, Z. (2012). Microstructure and mechanical properties of dissimilar pure copper/1350 aluminum alloy butt joints by friction stir welding, Transaction of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 22: 1298-1306

Xing, B., He, X., Wang, Y., Yang, H. and Deng, C. (2015). Study of mechanical properties for copper alloy H62 sheets joined byself-piercing riveting and clinching, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 216: 28-36

Zhou, L., Li, G.H., Zhang, R.X., Zhou, W.L., He, W.X., Huang, Y.X., and Song, X.G. (2019). Microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of friction stir spot welded dissimilar aluminum-copper joint, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 775: 372 -382