Main Article Content
Research into better and more improved biomaterials is at the forefront of modern biomedicine. A calcium phosphate compound known as Hydroxyapatite is one of the most bioactive and biocompatible osteoconductive ceramic materials currently known to man. It occurs naturally in the bones, teeth, and shells of some animals and the leaves, and stalks of some plants. It can also be synthesized artificially. Eggshells are very prominent sources of Hydroxyapatite and currently constitute waste, and environmental pollution due to ineffective, wrong, and incorrect disposal. In this research, two modified variants of the wet chemical precipitation method were used to produce hydroxyapatite from chicken eggshells gotten from the same source. The obtained samples were then characterized using XRD and SEM. The results of the characterization were analyzed to determine the most efficient, cost-effective, and less tedious method of production. It was discovered that although the orthophosphoric acid-based wet precipitation method was more efficient in producing phase pure hydroxyapatite, the nitric acid-based wet chemical precipitation method was found to be better than the orthophosphoric-based wet chemical precipitation method in terms of particle size, agglomeration, elemental analysis, and other observed properties.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
With the submission of a manuscript, the corresponding author confirms that the manuscript is not under consideration by another journal. With the acceptance of a manuscript, the Journal reserves the exclusive right of publication and dissemination of the information contained in the article. The veracity of the paper and all the claims therein is solely the opinion of the authors not the journal.
Agbeboh, N.I. Oladele, I.O., Daramola, O.O., Adediran, A.A., Olasukanmi, O.O. and Tanimola, M.O. (2020). Environmentally sustainable processes for the synthesis of hydroxyapatite. Heliyon, 6:1-13.
Akram, M., Ahmed R., Shakir I., Ibrahim, W.A.W. and Hussain, R., (2014). Extracting hydroxyapatite and its precursors from natural resources’, Journal of Materials Science, 49(4): 1461–1475.
Azis, Y., Adrian, M., Alfarisi, C.D., Khairat, R. and Sri M. (2018). Synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles from eggshells by sol-gel method”, IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 345(1): 1-7.
Bakan, F., Laçin, O. and Sarac, H. (2013). A Novel Low-Temperature Sol–Gel Synthesis Process for Thermally Stable Nano Crystalline Hydroxyapatite. Powder Technology, 233: 295–302.
Balazsi, C., Weber, F., Kover, Z., Horvath, E. and Nemeth, C. (2007). Preparation of Calcium–Phosphate Bioceramics from Natural Resources. Journal of the European Ceramic Society. 27:1601–1606.
Carrodeguas, R.G. and Aza, S.D. (2011). A-Tricalcium Phosphate: synthesis, properties and biomedical applications. Acta Biomater. 7: 3536–3546.
Daramola, O.O., Olajide, J.L., Agwuncha, S.C., Mochane, M. J. and Sadiku, E.R. (2019). Nanostructured Green Biopolymer Composites for Orthopedic Application. In: Gnanasekaran D. (eds) Green Biopolymers and their Nanocomposites. Materials Horizons: From Nature to Nanomaterials. Springer, Singapore, 159-190.
Goloshchapov, D.L., Kashkarov, V.M., Rumyantseva, N.A., Seredin, P.V., Lenshin, A.S., Agapov, B.L. and Domashevskaya, E.P. (2013). Synthesis of Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite by Precipitation using Hen’s Eggshell. Ceramics International. 39: 4539–4549.
Hui, P., Meena, S.L., Singh, G., Agarawal, R.D. and Prakash, S., (2010). Synthesis of Hydroxyapatite Bio-ceramic Powder by Hydrothermal Method. Journal of Miner. Mater. Charact. Eng. 9: 683–692.
Ige, O.O., Umoru, L.E. and Aribo, S. (2012). Natural Products : A Minefield of Biomaterials, International Scholarly Research Notices. 2012: 1-21
Jojor, L.M., Bambang, S. and Decky, .J.I. (2015). Characterization of Hydroxyapatite Derived from Bovine. Asian Journal of Applied Sciences. 3(4): 758-765.
Jones, J.R. (2005). Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering, In: Hench, L.L., Jones, J.R., (eds) Biomaterials, Artificial Organs and Tissue Engineering, Cambridge, Woodhead, 201-213.
Krishna, D.S.R., Siddharthan, A., Seshadri, S.K. and Kumar, T.S.S. (2007). A Novel Route for Synthesis of Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite from Eggshell Waste. Journal of Mater Sci Mater Med. 18: 1735–1743.
Kusmanto, F., Walker, G., Gan, Q., Walsh, P., Bushanan, F., Dickson, G., McCaigue, M.C. and Dring, M. (2008). Development of composite tissue scaffolds containing naturally sourced mircoporous hydroxyapatite. Chem. Eng. J., 139: 398–407.
Lee, S.J. and Oh, S.H. (2003). Fabrication of Calcium Phosphate Bioceramics by using Eggshell and Phosphoric Acid. Mater. Lett., 57: 4570–4574.
Li-Chan, E.C. and Kim, H.O. (2008). Structure and Chemical Composition of Eggs. Egg Bioscience and Biotechnology. Y. Mine (Ed.). 1-95.
Minh, D.P., Lyczko, N., Sebei, H., Nzihou, A. and Sharrock, P. (2012). Synthesis of Calcium Hydroxyapatite from Calcium Carbonate and Different Orthophosphate Sources: A Comparative Study. Materials Science and Engineering B. 177: 1080–1089.
Nayar, S. and Guha, A. (2009). Waste Utilization for the Controlled Synthesis of Nanosized Hydroxyapatite. Mat Sci Eng C-Mater, 29: 1326–1329.
Núñez, D., Elgueta, E., Varaprasad, K., and Oyarzún, P., (2018). Hydroxyapatite Nanocrystals Synthesized from Calcium Rich Bio-wastes. Materials Letters, 230: 64–68.
Oladele, I. O., Agbabiaka, O. G., Adediran, A. A., Akinwekomi, A. D. and Balogun, A. O. (2019). Structural Performance of Poultry Eggshell Derived Hydroxyapatite Based High Density Polyethylene Bio-composites. Heliyon, 5(10): 1-7.
Oladele, I.O., Agbabiaka, O.G., Olasunkanmi, O.G., Balogun, A.O. and Popoola M.O. (2018). Non-synthetic Sources for the Development of Hydroxyapatite. Journal of Applied Biotechnology & Bioengineering, 5(2): 88–95.
Olajide, J.L., Oladele, I.O., Agbeboh, N.I. and Babarinsa, S.O. (2019). Improved Strength, Modulus and Tolerable Ductility of Ortho-phthalic Polyester Biocomposites Reinforced with Keratinous Bio-resource. International Journal of Plastics Technology, 23: 67-76.
Ramesh, S., Tan, C.Y., Sopyan, I., Hamdi, M. and Teng, W.D. (2007). Consolidation of Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite Powder. Sci Technol Adv Mat, 8: 124–130.
Rujitanapanicha, S., Kumpapanb, P. and Wanjanoic, P. (2014). Synthesis of Hydroxyapatite from Oyster Shell via Precipitation. Energy Procedia, 56: 112 – 117.
Sanosh, K.P., Chu, M.C., Balakrishnan, A., Kim, T.N., and Cho, S.J. (2009). Utilization of Biowaste Eggshells to Synthesize Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite Powders. Mater Lett., 63: 2100–2102.
Sopyan, I., Raihana, M.F., Hamdi, M. and Ramesh, S. (2008). Novel Chemical Conversion of Eggshell to Hydroxyapatite Powder. In: Abu Osman N.A., Ibrahim F., Wan Abas W.A.B., Abdul Rahman H.S., Ting HN. (eds) 4th Kuala Lumpur International Conference on Biomedical Engineering IFMBE Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 21: 85.
Wu, S., Hsu, H., Hsu, S., Chang, Y. and Ho, W. (2015). Synthesis of Hydroxyapatite from Eggshell Powders Through Ball Milling and Heat Treatment. Journal of Asian Ceramic Societies, 4(1): 85-90.