Main Article Content

D.O. Folorunso


This study investigated the effect of mahogany wood sawdust (WSD) and waste glass (WG) addition on the properties and cost of producing fired clay bricks for construction of houses. Materials used were clay, WSD and WG. Brick samples were produced in batches and labeled as samples A (with no additives), B, C, D, E, F, G and H. Each sample of B, C, D, E, F, G and H contained 5% fixed amount of WSD, and 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40% of WG respectively. Brick samples produced were tested for apparent porosity, bulk density, compressive and flexural strengths, thermal conductivity and wear. Results obtained showed that as waste glass content increased in the samples, bulk density and compressive strength increased due to enhancement of densification and compaction within the samples. Thermal conductivity also increased as waste glass increased due to reduction in porosity and reduced inter-particle distance. The value of flexural strength increased with WG content but at 35% and 40%, the value reduced. This is as a result of an increase in brittleness as waste glass content increased which increased stress concentration in the samples, hence leading to a reduction in flexural strength. Also, it was observed that the increase in the content of the waste glass led to a reduction in the value of apparent porosity and wear depth due to improved cohesion between particles in the bricks. Comparing results obtained with existing standards and considering the cost of production, 5% WSD and 25% WG addition, with apparent porosity of 26.3%, compressive strength of 17.5 MPa, thermal conductivity of 0.32 W/mk and wear depth of 1.72 mm is recommended for construction purposes.

Article Details



Aeslina, A.K., Nurul, S.A., Noor, A.S., Nur, A.I. and Mohd, M.A. (2017). Properties of Fired Clay Brick Incorporating with Sewage Sludge Waste. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1885, Article ID: 020150.

American Society for Testing and Materials, (2001). C62-00. Standard Specification for Building Brick (Solid Masonry Units Made from Clay or Shale). ASTM International. West Conshohocken, PA.

American Society for Testing and Materials, (2003). C67-03a. Standard Test Method For Sampling and Testing Brick and Structural Clay Tile. ASTM International. West Conshohocken, PA.

American Society for Testing and Materials, (2006). C373-88. Standard Test Method for Water Absorption, Bulk Density, Apparent Porosity and apparent Specific Gravity of Fired White Ware Products. ASTM International. West Conshohocken, PA.

American Society for Testing and Materials, (2010). 293/C293-M. Standard Test Method For Flexural Strength of Concrete Using Simple Beam with Centre Point Loading. ASTM International. West Conshohocken, PA.

American Society for Testing and Materials, (2019). C 177-19. Standard Test Method for Steady State Heat Flux. ASTM International. West Conshohocken, PA.

Aramide, F. O., (2012). Production and Characterization of Porous Insulating Fired Bricks from Ifon Clay with Varied saw Dust Admixture. Journal of Mineral and Materials Characterization and Engineering. Vol. 11. Issue 5, pp 970-975.

Augustine U. E., (2006). Effect of Addition of Saw Dust Ash to Clay brick. Journal of Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems. Vol. 23, Issue 4, pp 101-105.

Australian Standard for Masonry Structures AS3700 (2001). Engineering Design of Earth Buildings. Sydney, NSW 2001.

Bachir C. and Halima C. (2012). Effect of Adding Saw Dust on the Mechanical and Physical Properties of Ceramic Bricks to obtain Light Weight Building Material. International Journal of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering. Vol. 6, Issue 11, pp 105-108.

British Standard Specification (1985), BS3921:1985. Standard Specification for Clay Bricks. British Standard Group. United Kingdom.

Chidiac, S.E., and Federico, L.M. (2007). Effects of Waste Glass Additions on the Properties and Durability of Fired Clay Brick. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering. Vol. 34, Issue 11, pp 1458-1466.

Cultrone G., Aurrekoetxea I., Casado C. & Arizzi A. Sawdust recycling in the production of lightweight bricks: How the amount of additive and the firing temperature influence the physical properties of the bricks, Construction and Building Materials, 2020; 235, (117436): 1-13, DOI:

Danupon, T., Perapong T. and Sareint J., (2008). Effect of Rice Husk Ash on Characteristics of Light Weight Clay Bricks. Proceedings Technology and innovation for sustainable development conferences. Faculty of Engineering, KhonKaen University, Thailand, pp 36-39.

da Silva R.C., Kubaski E.T., and Tebcherami S.M., (2019). Glass foams produced by glass waste, sodium hydroxide, and borax with several pore structures using factorial designs, Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol., 1-9, doi

Dondi M., Mazzanti F. and Principi P., (2004). Thermal Conductivity of Clay Bricks. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 16, pp 8-16.

Emmanuel, A.O., (2008). The Effect of Wood Ash and Saw Dust Admixture on the Engineering Properties of a Burnt Laterite-Clay Bricks. Journal of Applied Science Vol. 8, pp 1042-1048.

Fernando, P.R., Kannangara, G.L., Buddhika, G.P. and Urushiya, A. (2018). Synthesis and Characterization of Sustainable Man-Made Low-cost Clay Bricks with Bamboo Leaf Ash. Engineering Physics, 2, 15-22.

Folaranmi J., (2009). Effect of Additive on the Thermal Conductivity of Clay. Leonardo Journal of Science, Vol 8, Issue 14, pp 74-77.

Folorunso, D.O. and Akinwande, A.A. (2021) Applications of Compliance to Cost Ratio (C- CR) Analysis in the Determination of Optimum Mix of Insulating Bricks in Masonry. Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, 9, 134-147.

Folorunso, D. O., (2018). Characterization and Value Enhancement of Some Nigerian Refractory Materials for Thermal Insulation. IOSR Journal of mechanical and Civil Engineering, Vol. 15, Issue 3, Ver. III, pp79-86

Garcia-T., (2010). Thermal Conductivity of Traditional Ceramics. Part 1: Influence of Bulk Density and Firing Temperature. Journal of Ceramics International, Vol. 36, Issue 6, pp. 1951-1959.

Hisham, H.A. and Samir, M.S. (2017) Properties of Fired Clay Bricks Mixed with Waste Glass. Scientific Research and Reports, 13, 1-9.

Akinwande, A.A., (2020) Effects of Glass Waste Particles and Wood Saw Dust Admixture on the Properties of Fired Clay Bricks. M. Engr Thesis, Federal University of Technology, Akure.

Hisham H., A. (2016), Properties of Fired Clay Bricks Mixed with Glass Waste. MSc. Thesis. Department of Civil Engineering, The Islamic University, Gaza, Palestine.

India Standard IS 13801 (1993). Method of Determination of Resistance to Wear. Bureau of Indian Standards. Manak bhavan, 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, New Delhi.

Malaysia Standard MS 76:1972 (1972). Specification for Bricks and Blocks of Fired Earth, Clay or Shale, Part 2: metric Units. Malaysia Standard 22.

Mardiana and Riffat, (2015). Building energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions: threat to climate change. J Earth Sci Climat. Change, S3:001, 1-3,

Ministry of Construction TCVN 1451:1998 (1998). Solid Clay Bricks. Ministry of Construction, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Nigerian Industrial Standard (NIS 87: 2000). Specification for Sandcrete Blocks. Standard Organization of Nigeria, Lagos, Nigeria.

Obidiegwu, E., Esezobor, D., Agunsoye, J. and Lawal, G. (2015) Enhancement of Insulating Refractory Properties of Selected Nigerian Fire-Clays Using Coconut Shell. Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, 3, 458-468.

Odewole, O. O. and Folorunso, D. O. (2020). Fabrication of a Porous Ceramic Material Suitable for Cost-effective Thermal Insulation of Buildings. I.J. Engineering and Manufacturing, 5, 45-56., ( DOI: Copyright © 2020 MECS.

Odewole P.O., Kashim I.B. and Akinbogun T.L., (2019). Towards energy-efficient building design in Nigeria: the possibilities of developing cost-effective wall insulation materials using indigenous ceramic technology, in 1st Visual Communication Design Conference, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria, 267-283.

Rashidi A., Esfahani J.A. and Karimi N., (2018). Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 91 (2018) 229.

Sadiq L., (2020). Why Jos has lowest temperature of 6.7 degree Celsius- NCRS, Available at:

Turkish Standard Institute (2002). TSE TS 2824 EN 1338. Concrete Paving Block: Requirement and Test Methods. Ankara TSE. Turkey.

Udodiong I., (2019) Here is how to survive the current severe heatwave in Nigeria, Available at: to-survive -the-current-severe-heatwave-in-nigeria/2r1c9de