Main Article Content

S. O. Balogun
S. A. Yaro
M. Abdulwahab
A. Kasim


Alumina nanoparticles were synthesized from locally available high alumina clay, obtained from Giro in Kabbi State, through acid leaching with sol-gel method. The clay was leached with hydrofluoric acid and the aluminous solution produced was used as precursor to synthesis nanoparticles through sol gel process. The composition and structure of the clay and the particles produced were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction and fluorescence Spectroscopic techniques, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). From the analyses, the clay sample was observed to be high in alumina and predominantly Kaolinitic in nature. During the sol-gel process, effective flocculation was obtained at slightly alkaline pH range (7.6 to 8.0) and a relative moderate temperature of 80oC. The result also shows that the aging time of the gel affected the size of the particles produced during the process, and the particles are mainly nano-alumina.

Article Details



Abdulwahab, A, Al & Al-Sindy, S.I. (2006). Alumina Recovery from Kaolinitic Clay by Hydrochloric Acid Route. Iraqi Bulletin in Geology and Mining. Vol. 2 (1).

Abyzov, A.M, (2019). Aluminium oxide and alumina ceramics (review). Part 1. Properties of Al2O3 and commercial production of dispersed Al2O3. Refract Ind. Ceram 60, 24-32.

Ahmadi, M., Ghasemi, M.R & Rafsanjani. (2011). Study of different Parameters in TiO2 Nanoparticles Formation. Journal of Material Science and Engineering. Vol 5 pp. 87-93.

Ajemba, R. O., & Onukwuli, O. D., 2012. Process optimal of sulphuric acid leaching of alumina from Nteje clay using central composite rotatable design. Int. Multidiscip. Sci. Eng. 3 (5).

Alexminerals. (2017). High Alumina Clay. Retrieved from

Al-zahrani, A.A & Abdul-majid (2009). Extraction of Alumina from Local Clay by Hydrochloric acid Process. JKAU: Engineering and Sciences. Vol 20 (2) pp 29-41

Behera, P. S, Sarkar, R., & Bhattacharyya, S., (2016). Nano Alumina: A Review of the powder Synthesis Method. Interceram. International Ceramic Review, 65, pp10-16.

Chatterjee, S., & Mallick A.B. (2013). Challenges in manufacturing aluminium based metal matrix nanocomposite via stir casting route. Material science forum. 736, pp. 72-80.

Coelho, C.V.S., Moreira, C.A., Rosolen, V., Bueno, G.T., Salles, J., Furlan, L. M., & Govone, J.S., (2020). Analysing clays (Brazil) using electrical resistivity topography (ERT). Pure and Applied Geophysics, 117, 3943-3960.

Edomwonyi-otu, L, Aderemi, O.B., Ahmed, A.S., Coville, N & Maaza, M. (2003). Influence of Thermal Treatment on Kankara kaolinite. Opticon 1826. 15(5). Pp 1-5. doi:

Egbuna S.O., Mbah G.O. & Mbah-Iroulo. (2018). Optimization and process modeling of the extraction of alumina from Aku clay by hydraulic Acid leaching. American Journal of Engineering Research, vol. 7 (11), pp 158-169.

Habbache, N., Alane, S., Djerad, L., Tifouti, 2009. Leaching of copper oxide with different acid solution. Chem. Eng. J. 221 (4), 1-2.

Hu, H., Onyebueke, L & Abatan, A., (2010). Characterization and Modeling Mechanical Properties of Nanocomposite-Review and Evaluation

Keller W.D (1963). The Origin of High-Alumina Clay Minerals-A Review. Twelfth National Conference on Clays and Clay Minerals, pp.129-144

Kristo, J, Frost R.L, Felinger, A & Mink, J. (1997). FTIR Spectroscopic study of intercalated kaolinite. Journal of Molecular Structures. Vol. 410-411. Pp 119-122.

Manirasakan, P., Rajendra V., Rauta, P.R., Suhu, B.B & Panda, B,K. (2009). Direct synthesis of nanoalumina from natural bauxite. Advanced materials Research, vol.67. pp 143-148.

Manirasakan, P., Rajendra V., Rauta, P.R., Suhu, B.B & Panda, B,K. (2009). Direct synthesis of nanoalumina from natural bauxite. Advanced materials Research, vol.67. pp 143-148.

Manivasakan, P., Karthik, A., & Rajendvar,V. (2013). Mass production of Al_2 O_3 and〖 ZnO〗_2 nanoparticles by hot-air spray pyrolysis. Powder technology (Elsevier). Vol.234 pp 84-90. doi 10.1016/j.powtec.2012.08.028.

Mgbemena, C.O., Ibekwe, N.O., Sukamar, R., & Menon, A.R.R. (2013). Characterization of kaolin intercalates of oleochemical derived from rubber seed (Hevea brasiensis) and tea seeds (camellia sinensis) oils. Journal of King Saud University – science. 25. Pp 149-155.

Mosoudch, A., Mohammad, R.G. & Hassan, H.R. (2011). Study of different Parameter in TiO2 Nanoparticles Formation. Journal of Material Science and Engineering. Vol.5, pp. 87-93.

Nidhin M, Indumathy R, Sreeram, K,J & Nair, B.U. (2008). Synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles of narrow size distribution on polysaccharide templates. Bull. Mater. Sci., vol. 31 (1) pp. 93-96.

Olaremu, A.G. (2015). Sequential leaching for the production of Alumina from Nigerian Clay. International Journal of Engineering Technology, management and Applied Sciences. Vol. 3 Iss 7.

Pinna, E. G., Barbosa, L. I., Suarez, D. S., Rodriguez, M, H., 2018. Kinetic study of dissolution of metalkaoline with hydrofluoric acid. Indian J. Chem. Technol., 25, 287-293.

Redmond, P.L, Hallock, A.J, & Brus, L.E (2005). Electrochemical Ostwald Ripening of Colloidal Ag Particles on Conductive Substrates. Nano Letters, vol. 5 (1). Pp. 131-135.

Ritz, M., Plevova, E & Vaculikora, L. (2011). Application of infrared spectroscopy and chemometric methods to identification of selected minerals. vol. 8 No. 1 (161). Pp. 47-58.

Sebtendra R., Nugroho. S & Umardani., Y. (2014). Physical characterization of alumina (Al2O3) based refractory application on induction furnace lining. Jurnal teknik mesin s-1, vol 2 (1), pp 77-84.

Sekunowo, O.I., Durowaye, S.I & Lawal, G.I. (2015). An Overview of Nano-Particles Effect on Mechanical Properties of Composite. International Journal of Mechanical, Aerospace, Industrial Mechatronic and Manufacturing. Vol. 9. (1).

Shahini, S., Askari, M & Sadrnnezhaad S.K. (2011). Sol- Gel Synthesis and Aging Effect on Highly Crystaline Anatse Nanopowder. Bulletin of Material Science. (Springer). vol 34, Iss.6, pp 1186-1195.

Vahur, S., Teearu, A., Peets, P., Joosu, L., & Leito, I. (2016). ATR-FT-IR Spectra collection of conservation materials in the extended region of 4000-80 cm-1. Analythical and bioanalytical chemistry. Vol. 408 (13). Pp. 3373-3379.

Zhang, L. (2004) Preparation of multi component ceramic nanoparticles. Retrieved from: