Main Article Content
The use of biomass for energy generation has been considered as a promising alternative to fossil fuels due to its availability and characteristic low cost. However, ash-related issues such as slagging and fouling generated during biomass combustion results in decreased combustion efficiency, power instability and even unscheduled failure. This study focused on the influence of kaolin additive on the ash yield during co-combustion of palm kernel shell (PKS) and cashew nut shell (CNS). The CNS, PKS and kaolin of different particle sizes were mixed under varying combustion temperature using D-Optimal design. The minimum ash yield of 11.50 % was obtained when CNS, PKS, kaolin, particle size and temperature were 50.00%, 40.00%, 10.00% 5.00 mm and 900oC, respectively. The ash yield was best described by the quadratic model with correlation coefficient (R2) and adjusted R2 of 0.93371 and 0.8984 respectively. According to the XRD results, the formation of potassium and aluminium tectosilicate (KAlSi2O6) in the CNS-PKS additive mixture ash prevented the release of potassium chloride which is known to increase ash deposition and slagging. The results of optimization indicate that at least 10% kaolin addition is needed to significantly reduce ash yield in the fuel mixture.
With the submission of a manuscript, the corresponding author confirms that the manuscript is not under consideration by another journal. With the acceptance of a manuscript, the Journal reserves the exclusive right of publication and dissemination of the information contained in the article. The veracity of the paper and all the claims therein is solely the opinion of the authors not the journal.
ASTM 3173-87. (1989). Standards test method for moisture in the analysis sample of coal and coke, in gaseous fuels;coal and coke, section 5. pp300.
ASTM 3174-89. (1989). Standard method of proximate analysis of coal and coke, in gaseous fuels; coal and coke section 5. Annual Book of ASTM standards(05), pp.299.
ASTM 3175-11. (1989). Standards test method for volatile matter in the analysis sample of coal and coke, in gaseous fuels; coal and coke, section 5. pp 305.
ASTM E711-87. (1989). Standards test method for gross calorific value of coal and coke using GallenKamp bomb calorimeter, in gaseous fuels; coal and coke, section 5. vol. 05-05;1989, pp. 251.
Guvenc¸ A. Kapucu,, N. Kapucu , H. Aydog, O Mehmetog, O:(2007): Enzymatic
esterification of isoamyl alcohol obtained from fusel oil: Optimization by response surface
methodology Enzyme and Microbial Technology Vol. 40 pp. 778–785
Kareem, B., Oladosu, K., O. Alade, A. Durowoju, M. O: (2018) Optimization of combustion characteristics of palm kernel-based biofuel for grate furnace. Int. J. Energy Environ. Eng., No. 9, 457–472
Lim and Lam (2016): Modelling of Aerosol Formation during Biomass Combustion for Various Furnace Type. Fuel Processing Technol, Vol.88, 1136-47
Luangkiattihuun and Aangsathitkulachi . (2008). Renewable fuel grate firing combustion technology- The Eueopean Experience. Retrieved from http://www.mass.gov/doer/rps/mor_rpt.pdf
Mason Zahedi, G., Zendehboudi, S., Jamili, A.. (2016). Observations on the release of gas-phase pottasium during the combustion of single particles of biomass. Fuel, 182, pp.110-7.
Matias, E. (2016). The Potential for Renewable energy in industrial applications. Elseevier Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol.16, pp 216-230.
Razuan, S., M Din, M.F., Kamaruddin, S.F., Taib, S.M., Singh, L., F.A., (2011). Evaluation of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) as a potential raw material sources for briquette production. Energy 111, 768–773. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy
Sawadogo, M., Tanoh, S.T., Sidibé, S., Kpai, N., Tankoano, I (2018). Cleaner Production in
Burkina Faso. Case study of fuel briquettes made from cashew industry waste. Journal of
Cleaner Production, 195, pp1047-1056. Retrieved from
Stat-Ease Inc. (2008). Design Expert, version 7.1.8, East Hennepin Avenue, Minneapolis. Retrieved from http://www.sttease.com. (Accessed 7 july, 2016)
Supatchaya K., Suneerat, P., Thanid, M., and Suvit, T. (2011). Effect of kaolin addition on ash characteristics of palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) upon combustion. Applied Energy, vol.88, pp.298-305.
Yuanyuan, S., Jinsheng W. , Fernando P. , Jesse Z and Chunbao, Xu (2012). Ash Deposition in
Biomass Combustion or Co-firing for Power/heat generation. Energy, vol.5, pp.5171-
5189. Retrieved from http://doi:10.3390/en5125171
Wei Ab Karim, G., Abdullah, M.S., Matori, A. and Gabriel, S (2005). Behaviour of gaseous chlorine and alkali metal during biomass thermal utilization. fuel, 84, pp841-8.