Geochemical and Mineralogical Characterization of Ore – Mineral Assemblages from Black Sands in Akure South Area, South - Western Nigeria

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O. O. Alabi
T. A. Olatunji
Y. Gbadamosi


The geochemical and mineralogical features of Black sand in Akure South was investigated. The head samples were sourced from four different locations and mixed properly for homogenization. 200 g crude sample was sampled out, finely ground using the Denver Ball Mill, Model: Denver D10 and prepared towards characterization. Chemical Characterization of the crude sample was carried out using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (ED-XRF) - Minipal 5. Mineralogical Analysis was carried out using Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometer (SEM-EDS) and X-ray Diffraction Analysis (XRD). ED-XRF analysis revealed that the crude sample contains 17.55 % Fe2O3, 63.7 % SiO2, 15.5 % TiO2, and other compounds in trace form. Mineralogical analysis of the black sand via XRD revealed the present of Quartz (87.07 % SiO2), Magnetite (0.59 % Fe3O4), Ilmenite (9.89 % FeTiO3) with other associated minerals such as Rutile (0.53 % TiO2), Anatase (0.25 % TiO2), Kaolinite (0.09% Al2 (Si2O5(OH)4) and Albite (1.57% Na(AlSi3O8)). SEM images revealed interlocking of some minerals within the crystal aggregates of the crude black sand and the EDS of these microstructures revealed the presence of Al, Mn, Cu, O, Si, C, Fe and Ti; silicon, titanium and iron are the major elemental constituents of the matrix.

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