Mechanical Wear Resistance and Water Absorption Properties of Particulate Palm Kernel Shell Reinforced Epoxy Composites for Automobile Application

Main Article Content

A. S. Taiwo
I. O. Oladele
O. O. Daramola
A. D. Akinwekomi
O. G. Agbabiaka


This work investigates the effects of particulate palm kernel shell (PKS) on epoxy matrix for the development of composites that can be used as substitute to the conventional metallic bumpers in automobiles. The PKS was sourced from an oil plantation and washed thoroughly with water before sun dried. The dried PKS was pulverized using a laboratory ball mill and sieved into 45 µm particle sizes. Elemental composition of the PKS was determined using XRF. The PKS particulate was randomly dispersed in the epoxy resin to develop composite samples of varied weight contents. The developed samples were tested to determine their impact toughness, wear resistance, flexural, tensile and water absorption properties. The results showed that higher weight contents within 10 - 20 wt.% PKS reinforcement gave the best performance in most of the mechanical properties examined with the exception of tensile and flexural properties which were enhanced at 8 wt.%. Water absorption was noticed to increase as the PKS content increases from 2 - 20 wt.%.

Article Details



Agunsoye J. O, Talabi S. I, Obe A. A, Adamson I. O., Effects of Palm Kernel Shell on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Recycled Polyethylene/Palm Kernel Shell Particulate Composites, Journal of Minerals and Materials Characterization and Engineering, Vol. 11, 2012, pp. 825-831.

ASTM D-256, Standard Test Methods for Determining the Izod Pendulum Impact Resistance of Plastics, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2015,

ASTM D4060-14, Standard Test Method for Abrasion Resistance of Organic Coatings by the Taber Abraser, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2014,

ASTM D638-14, Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Plastics, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2014,

ASTM D790-15, Standard Test Method for Flexural Properties of Unreinforced and Reinforced Plastics and Electrical Insulating Materials, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2015,

Davoodi M. M, Conceptual Design of a Polymer Composite Automotive Bumper Energy Absorber, Journal of Materials and Design, Vol. 29, No. 7, 2008, pp. 1447

Elakhame Z.U, Alhassan O.A, Samuel A.E, Development and Production of Brake Pads from Palm Kernel Shell Composites, International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research, Volume 5, No. 10, 2014, pp. 7-8.

Ibhadode A.O. and Dagwa I.M., Evaluation of palm kernel fibers (PKFs) for production of asbestos-free automotive brake pads, Journal of King Saud University - Engineering Sciences Volume 28, No. 1, 2016, pp. 110-118.

Larbig. H., Scherzer H., Dahlke B. and Poltrock R., “Natural Fiber Reinforced Foams Based on Renewable Resources for Automotive Interior Applications,” Journal of Cellular Plastics, Vol. 34, No. 4, 2008, pp. 361-379.

Oladele I.O., Agbabiaka O.G., Akinola O.S. and Talabi H.K. (2016) Development of Sponge Fiber and Particulate Palm Kernel Shell Ash Reinforced Polypropylene Hybrid Composites. Journal of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 93-98.

Oladele I.O., Agbeboh N.I., Omokafe S.M. and Ibrahim O.I. (2018) Effects of Fiber Fraction on the Mechanical and Abrasion Properties of Treated Cow Hair Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composites. Tribology in Industry, 40(2) pp. 254-262

Samotu I.A, Dauda M, Anafi F.O, Obada D.O, Suitability of Recycled Polyethylene/Palm Kernel Shell-Iron Filings Composite for Automobile Application, Tribology in Industry, Vol. 37, No. 2, 2015,pp. 142-153.

Vijay K.B, Dharminder S, Research Work On Composite Epoxy Matrix & Ep Polyester Reinforced Material, International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology Vol. 2, No. 1, 2013.