• Oluwatoyin Olaseinde a:1:{s:5:"en_US";s:59:"Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, FUTA";}
  • O. Ajanaku Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering School of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State Nigeria
  • O. M. Ojo Department of Civil Engineering The Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria
  • S. O. Seidu Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering School of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State Nigeria



Concrete, Reinforcing Steel Bars, Mechanical Properties, Building Collapse


Nigeria is a developing nation, the need to build structures is on high rise. The rate of structure failure and building collapse is also on the rise. This paper presents a comparative study on Mechanical Properties of Reinforced steel bars obtained from the shelves, and that obtained from the failed structure of a residential building which is then compared to International standard NO-432 . Steels are main reinforcing materials for most structural buildings, but when the integrity is compromised, it leads to devastating consequences. The quality of concrete and steel reinforcement must be such that has appropriate yield strength so that the structure can sustain the require load within the required time interval. The Ultimate Tensile Strength and percentage elongation of the steel bars obtained from the two sources were investigated. One of the sources was a reinforcing bar used in Millennium Estate, Mary Land, Lagos State, Nigeria. The steel bar samples of sizes 10mm and 16mm diameter were subjected to mechanical testing using a universal testing machine. The percentage elongation met with the standards while the 16mm samples are below the standards for both the failed structure and shelves.


Ahzahar, N. , N. A. Karim, S. H. Hassan, J. Eman, 2011. A Study of Contribution Factors to Building Failures and Defects in Construction Industry. Elsevier, p. 249-255.

Akande B. F. , Debo S. B., Akinjobi S. D., Alao T. 0. and Akinrogunde 0. 0, 2016. Causes, Effects and Remedies to the incessant Building Collapse in Lagos State, Nigeria.. International Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences IJBAS-IJENS, pp.15-20.

Alabi, A. G. F., Ayoade, A. 0. Odusote, J.K. and Akanni, A. A. 2016. Assessment of Suitability of Nigerian Made Steel Bars for Structural Applications The Journal of the Association of Professional Engineers of Trinidad and Tobago Vol.44, No.2, October/November2016,pp.l 7-23

Alabi, A. G. F and Onyeji, L. I. (2010), "Analysis and comparative assessment of locally produced reinforcing steel bars for structural purposes", USEP: Journal of Research in Civil Engineering, Vol. 7, pp. 49-60.

Anthony Nkem Ede , Emmanuel Oluwabukunmi Egunjobi, Gideon Olukunle Bamigboye ,and Jadesola Ogundeji, 2015. Assessment of Quality of Steel Reinforcing Bars Used in Lagos, Nigeria. International Research Journal of Innovation Engineering.

Arayela, 0. and Adam J. J, 2001. Building Disasters and Failures in Nigeria. Causes and Remedies. Journal of the Association of Architectural Educators in Nigeria, pp. 15-25.

Arum, C. (2008). "Verification of properties of concrete reinforcement bars: Nigeria as case study", Indoor Built Environment, Vol.17,No4,pp.370-376.

ASTM, 1990. Metal-Mechanical Testing: Elevated and Low-Temperature Tests. Metallographic. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Volume 3.

Ayedun, C. A. , Durodola, 0. D. and Akinjare, 0. A., 2012. An Empirical Ascertainment of the Causes of Building Failure and Collapse in Nigeria. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, pp. 131-322.

Ayodeji, 0. , 2011. An Examination of the Causes and Effects of Building Collapse in Nigeria. Journal of Design and Built Environment, p. 37-47.

Bamigboye, G. 0., T. Michaels, A. N. Ede, B. U. Ngene, C. Nwanko, 2019. The Role of Construction Materials in Building Collapse in Nigeria: A Review. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, pp. 1-14.

Chendo, I. G and N. I. Obi, 2015. Building Collapse in Nigeria: The causes , effect, consequences and remedies. International Journal of Civil Engineering, Construction and Estate

Chukwudi, B. C. (2010). "Assessment of the quality of steel rods available in Onitcha market: In view of the role of poor quality rods in building failures in Nigeria", Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 11, No 1,pp.55-59.

Ebehikhalu Nicholas & Dawam Patrick, 2014. Spatial Analysis of Building Collapse in Nigeria: A Study of the Causes and Problems. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, pp. 2222-2855.

Ede, A. , 2010. Building Collapse in Nigeria: the Trend of Casualties in the Last Decade (2000 -2010). International Journal of Civil & Environmental Engineering, pp. 32-42.

Ede, A. N., 0. M. Olofinnade, 0. Joshua, 2014. Experimental Investigation of Yield Strengths of Steel Reinforcing Bars Used in Nigerian Concrete Structures. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, pp. 54-60.

John Wasiu, Oluwadare Joshua Oyebode And Victor Babafemi Adebayo, 2014. Causes of Building Collapse and Prevention in Nigeria. Ado-Ekiti, Nigerian Institute of Civil Engineers (NICE).

Joshua, 0. , K. 0. 0. Olusola, C. Ayegba and A. I. Yusuf, 2013.Assessment of the quality steel reinforcement bars available in Nigerian market. AEI 2013, ASCE, pp. 295-304.

Kazeem, K. Adewole, Joy-Felicia 0. Oladejo, Wasiu 0. Ajagbe, 2014. Incessant Collapse of Buildings in Nigeria: The Possible Role of the Use of Inappropriate Cement Grade/Strength Class. International Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering, pp. 832- 837.

Kolawole, 0. M., 2018. Assessment of Building Collapse in Nigeria: The Major Causes and Practical Remedies. Civil and Environmental Research, pp. 25-35.

Kutz, M. (2002). "Role of Alloying Elements in Steel", In: Hand Book of Materials Selections, Kutz Myer Associates, John Wiley and Sons Inc.

Mansur Hamma-adama and Tabar Kouider, 2017. Causes of Building Failure And Collapse In Nigeria: Professionals' View. American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER), pp. 289- 300.

NST, 65 -MN, 1994. Raw Materials and Specifications for Federal Government Steel Companies.

Odeyemi S. 0. , Z. T. Giwa, and R. Abdulwahab, 2019. Building Collapse in Nigeria (2009- 2019), Causes and Remedies -A Review. Journal of Science and Engineering Production, pp. 122- 135.

Olajumoke, A. M. , Oke, I. A, Fajobi, A. B. Ogedengbe, M. 0, 2009. Engineering Failure Analysis of a Failed Building in Osun state, Nigeria. Journal of Failure Analysis and Prevention, pp. 8-15.

Olayinka, C. Oloke, Abiodun S. Oni, Ayodeji Ogunde, Opeyemi Josuha and Daniel 0. Babalola, 2017. Incessant Building Collapse in Nigeria: A Framework for Post-Development Management Control. Developing Country Studies, pp. 114-127.

Organization, I. S., 1997. British Standard, Reinforcement bar, Jentagu Venture. [Accessed 2020].

Ponle, E. A. , Olatunde 0. B and Awotunde O.W, 2014. Mechanical Properties of Reinforcing Steel Rods Produced from Recycled Scraps. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, pp. 1-5.

Ponle, E. A. , Olatunde 0. B and Fatukasi S. 0, 2014. Investigation on the Chemical Analysis of Reinforcing Steel Rods Produced From Recycled Scraps. Journal of Chemical and Process Engineering Research, p. Unpublished.

Roylance, D. , 2008. Mechanics of Materials. In: Mechanical Properties of Materials. s.l.:s.n.

Taiwo, A. A. and J. A. Afolami, 2011. Incessant building collapse: A case of a hotel in Akure, Nigeria . Journal of Building Appraisal, p. 241- 248.

Yeon Tak Kim, Jong Pil Yun, Boyeul Seo, Youngsu Park, and Sang Woo Kim, 2007. A Classification Algorithm for Steel Bar in Coil using Wavelet Transform. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, pp. 09-23.