IMPACT OF LAND USE AND LAND COVER CHANGES ON RUNOFF PREDICTION IN OGBESE RIVER WATERSHED

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Obinna Obiora-Okeke
J. R. Adewumi
O. M. Ojo

Abstract

Land use and land cover (LULC) changes in Ogbese watershed due to urbanization implies increased areas of low infiltration. This results to higher flow rates downstream the watershed. This study estimates the changes in peak flow rates at the watershed’s outlet for present and future LULC. Rainfall-runoff simulation was achieved with Hydrologic Engineering Centre-Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) version 4.2 while future LULC was projected with Markov Chain model. Rainfall inputs to the hydrologic model were obtained from intensity-duration-frequency curves for Ondo state. Landsat 7, Enhanced Thematic mapper plus (ETM+) image and Landsat 8 operational land imager (OLI) with path 190 and row 2 were used to generate LULC images for the years 2002, 2015 and 2019. Six LULC classes were extracted as follows: built up area, bare surface, vegetation, wetland, rock outcrop and waterbody.  Future LULC in year 2025 and 2029 were projected with Markov Chain model. The model prediction was verified with Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency index (NSE). NSE value of 0.79 was calculated indicating LULC changes in the watershed was Markovian. Results show that built up area cover in 2019 is projected to increase by 26.1% in 2024 and 39.9% in 2029 and wetland is projected to decreased by 1.2% in 2024 and 2.3% by 2029. Runoff peaks for these LULC projections indicate increase by 0.24% in 2024 and 1.19% in 2029 at the watershed’s outlets for 100-year return period rainfall.

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