Main Article Content

Ayoola Jongbo
Adekunle T. Atta
Ian Moorcroft


Fast-growing broiler chickens, bred for meat, find it difficult to adapt to warm conditions during hot weather periods in an enclosed environment. They tend to change their behavioural and physiological mechanisms to survive. This study was carried out to evaluate the air velocity distributions within a sidewall inlet and roof exhaust ventilated broiler shed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The simulation was conducted using three turbulence models (standard, realizable, and SST ) to determine the best predictive model for the hot weather ventilation of the broiler shed under consideration. The results predicted by the turbulence models were validated with the field experimental results. It was discovered that the standard turbulence model predicted air velocity distributions, close to that of the air velocity distributions obtained during the experimental study except at the centre of the broiler shed where the CFD predicted higher air velocity. This shows that CFD could be adopted by Agricultural Engineers to create appropriate environments for animals before the structures are physically erected.

Article Details



Albright, L. D. (1990) Environment control for animals and plants. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, Michigan.

Benni, S. et al. (2016) Efficacy of greenhouse natural ventilation: Environmental monitoring and CFD simulations of a study case, Energy and Buildings. Elsevier B.V., 125, pp. 276–286. doi: 10.1016/j.enbuild.2016.05.014.

Bjerg, B. et al. (2002) Modelling of air inlets in CFD prediction of airflow in ventilated animal houses, Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 34(1–3), pp. 223–235. doi: 10.1016/S0168-1699(01)00189-2.

Blanes-Vidal, V. et al. (2008) Application of computational fluid dynamics to the prediction of airflow in a mechanically ventilated commercial poultry building, Biosystems Engineering, 100(1), pp. 105–116. doi: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2008.02.004.

Bournet, P. E. and Boulard, T. (2010) Effect of ventilator configuration on the distributed climate of greenhouses: A review of experimental and CFD studies, Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 74(2), pp. 195–217. doi: 10.1016/j.compag.2010.08.007.

Bustamante, E. et al. (2013) Exploring ventilation efficiency in poultry buildings: The validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in a cross-mechanically ventilated broiler farm, Energies, 6(5), pp. 2605–2623. doi: 10.3390/en6052605.

Jongbo, A. O. et al. (2020) Evaluation of airflow movement within a broiler shed with roof ventilation system during summer, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 445(012028). doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/445/1/012028.

Li, H., Rong, L. and Zhang, G. (2016) Study on convective heat transfer from pig models by CFD in a virtual wind tunnel, Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 123(April), pp. 203–210. doi: 10.1016/j.compag.2016.02.027.

Li, H., Rong, L. and Zhang, G. (2017) Reliability of turbulence models and mesh types for CFD simulations of a mechanically ventilated pig house containing animals, Biosystems Engineering. Elsevier Ltd, 161, pp. 37–52. doi: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2017.06.012.

Mostafa, E. et al. (2012) Computational fluid dynamics simulation of air temperature distribution inside broiler building fitted with duct ventilation system, Biosystems Engineering. IAgrE, 112(4), pp. 293–303. doi: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2012.05.001.

Norton, T. et al. (2007) Applications of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in the modelling and design of ventilation systems in the agricultural industry: A review, Bioresource Technology, 98(12), pp. 2386–2414. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2006.11.025.

Norton, T. et al. (2009) Assessing the ventilation effectiveness of naturally ventilated livestock buildings under wind dominated conditions using computational fluid dynamics, Biosystems Engineering. IAgrE, 103(1), pp. 78–99. doi: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2009.02.007.

Norton, T. et al. (2010) Assessing the ventilation performance of a naturally ventilated livestock building with different eave opening conditions, Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 71(1), pp. 7–21. doi: 10.1016/j.compag.2009.11.003.

Norton, T. (2010) Using computational fluid dynamics to design naturally ventilated calf buildings that promote animal health and welfare. University College Dublin, National University of Ireland, Dublin.

Norton, T., Kettlewell, P. and Mitchell, M. (2013) A computational analysis of a fully-stocked dual-mode ventilated livestock vehicle during ferry transportation, Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 93, pp. 217–228. doi: 10.1016/j.compag.2013.02.005.

Rong, L. et al. (2016) Summary of best guidelines and validation of CFD modeling in livestock buildings to ensure prediction quality, Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. Elsevier B.V., 121, pp. 180–190. doi: 10.1016/j.compag.2015.12.005.

Seo, I.-H. et al. (2009) Improvement of the ventilation system of a naturally ventilated broiler house in the cold season using computational simulations, Biosystems Engineering. Elsevier Ltd, 104(1), pp. 106–117. doi: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2009.05.007.

Seo, I.-H. et al. (2012) Modelling of internal environmental conditions in a full-scale commercial pig house containing animals, Biosystems Engineering, 111(1), pp. 91–106. doi: 10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2011.10.012.

van Wagenberg, A. V., Bjerg, B. and Bot, G. P. A. (2004) Measurement and simulation of climatic conditions in the animal occupied zone in a door ventilated room for piglets, Agricultural Engineering International: the CIGR Journal of Scientific Research and Development, Vol VI.(Manuscript BC 03 020).