Main Article Content

O O. Daramola


Epoxy matrix composites reinforced with clay particles were developed by hand lay-up open mould casting technique. The clay used in this study was pulverized and processed into ultrafine particles through the sedimentation process. The composites were developed by blending the epoxy matrix and hardener with various weight fractions of the ultrafine clay particles (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 wt%) in open test moulds. In order to accomplish a homogeneous blend of the constituents; manual mixing of the blend was carried out for 3 min. The test specimens were left to cure for 24 hours in the moulds and for additional 27 days at room temperature of 27 ± 2 °C and were thereafter detached from the moulds. The developed composites test specimens were subjected to mechanical tests (flexural, tensile and impact) in accordance with ASTM standards and performed at room temperature. Structural characteristics of the clay particles were determined with the aid of an X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The morphologies of the composites were determined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). There was a progressive enhancement in the mechanical properties of epoxy composites containing 2-6 wt.% ultrafine clay particles while a drastic decrease in the mechanical properties was noticed in the epoxy/clay composites reinforced with 8-10 wt.% ultrafine clay particles. The SEM images revealed homogeneous particles distributions within the epoxy matrix at lower ultrafine clay particles weight fractions (2 wt. % and 6 wt.%).

Article Details



Autar K. Kaw (2006). Mechanics of Composite Materials, Second Edition, Published by Taylor and Francis Group, ISBN 0849313430, New York. Vol. 7, pp. 450-457.

Ajayan P.M., Schadler L.S. & Braun P.V. (2003). Nano- Composite Science and Technology, Wiley-VCH Gmbh & Co. Vol. 12, pp. 250.

ASTM D638-10 (2010). Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Plastics, Annual Book Of ASTM Standards, West Conshohocken, PA.

ASTM D790-17 (2017). Standard Test Methods for Flexural Properties of Unreinforced And Reinforced Plastics and Electrical Insulating Materials, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.

ASTM D1044-13, Standard Test Method for Resistance of Transparent Plastics to Surface Abrasion, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.

Chow, W. S., Ishak, Z. A. M., Ishiaku, U. S., Karger-Kocsis, J., and Apostolov, A. A. (2003). The Effect of Organoclay on the Mechanical Properties and Morphology of Injection Moulded Polyamide 6 / Polypropylene Nanocomposites, Journal Of Applied Polymer Science, 91(1), pp. 175–189.

Daramola, O.O., Akintayo, O.S., Adewole, T.A., Talabi, H.K (2017a). Mechanical Properties and Water Absorption Behaviour of Polyester/ Soil- Retted Banana Fibre (Srbf) Composites, International Journal Of Engineering; Vol.15, pp. 183-190.

Daramola, O.O., Oladele, I.O., Adewuyi, B.O., Sadiku, R., Agwuncha, S.C. (2017b). Thermal, Structural and Morphological Properties of High-Density Polyethylene Matrix Composites Reinforced with Submicron Agrosilica Particles and Titania Particles, Journal of Taibah University for Science, Vol. 326, pp. 1-9.

Folorunso, D.O., Olubambi, P. and Borode, J.O. (2014). Characterization and Qualitative Analysis of Some Nigerian Clay Deposits for Refractory Applications. IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry, Vol. 7, Issue 9, pp. 40-47.

Hwu, J. M., Jiang, G. J., Gao, Z. M., Xie, W. and Pan, W. P. (2002). The Characterization of Organic Modifiedclay and Clay- Filled PMMA Nanocomposite, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 83, No. 8, pp. 1702-1710.

ISO 179-1 (2010). Plastic Determination of Charpy Impact Properties, International Organization for Standardization Annual Report, Geneva, Switzerland.

Jamil, M. S; Ahmed, I. and Abdullah, I. (2006). Effects of Rice Husk Filler on the Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Liquid Natural Rubber Compatibilized High-Density Polyethylene/ Natural Rubber Blends, Journal of Polymer, Research; 13, pp. 315-336.

Jordan, J.; Jacob, K. I.; Tannenbaum, R.; Sharaf, M. A., and Jasiuk, I. (2005). Experimental Trends In Polymer Nanocomposites: A Review; Materials Science Engineering; Vol. 3, No. 93, pp. 1-11.

Liu, T., Tjiu W.C., Tong, Y., He, C., Goh, S.S and Chung, T.(2004). Morphology and Fracture Behaviour of Intercalated Epoxy/Claynanocomposites, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 94, No. 3, pp. 1236–1244.

Liu, Z.H., Kwok, K.W., Lux, R., Li, R.K.Y And Choy, C.L. (2002). Effects of Coupling Agent and Morphology no the Impact Strength of High-Density Polyethylene/CaCO3 Composites, Polymer, Vol. 43, pp. 2501-2506

Lou, C.W., Lin, C.W., Lei, C.H., Su, K.H., Hsu, C.H., Liu, Z.H. (2007). PET/PP Blend with Bamboo Charcoal to Produce Functional Composites, Journal of Material Processing Technology, Vol. 192-193, pp. 428-461.

Murray, H.H. (2007). Applied Clay Mineralogy: Occurrence, Processing and Applications of Kaolins, Bentonite, Palygorskite- Sepiolite and Common Clays, Development in Clay Science, Elsevier, Vol. 2; pp. 180.

Nadiir B., Abdrahim A.T ., Mohd R.H.(2014). Thermal Spray Coatings or Polymer Matrix Composites in Gas Turbine Engines: A Review Journal of the International Review of Aerospace Engineering, Volume 7, Issue 3; pp. 17-20.

Pandey, J. K., Raghunatha Reddy, K., Pratheep Kumar, A. and Singh, R. P. (2005). An Overview on the Degradability of Polymer Nanocomposites, Polymer Degradation and Stability, Vol. 88, No. 2, pp. 234-250.

Parkhe, R. And Sanjay B.(2014). Performance Analysis of Carbon Fiber with Epoxy Resin Based Composite Leaf Spring, International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology, Vol.4, No 2. pp. 536-541.

Rozman, H.D., Kon, B.K., Abusaman, A., Kumar, R.N. and Issak, Z.A. (1998). Mechanical Properties of Rubber Wood-Filled High-Density Polyethylene Composites, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol.69, p.1993.

Sanadi, A., Caulfield, D.F., and Jacobson, R.E. (1997). Paper and Composites from Agro-Based Resources, Lewis Publishers, New York, p.377

Sandler, J. K. W., Kirk, J. E., Kinloch, I. A., Shaffer, M. S. P. and Windle, A. H. (2003). Ultra-Low Electrical Percolation Threshold in Carbon-Nanotube-Epoxy Composites, Polymer, Vol. 44, No. 19, pp. 5893-5899.

Sushree Sangita Mullick (2012). Fabrication and Characterization of Alkali Treated Natural Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites, Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, No.4, pp. 56 – 59.

Yang, H.S., Kin, H.J., Son, J., Park, H.J., Lee, B.J. and Hwang, T.S. (2004). Rice Husk Flour Filled Polypropylene Composites: Mechanical and Morphological Study, Composite Structure, Vol.63, pp.305-317.