Analyses of Biogas and Digestate from Cattle Dung Anaerobic Digestion

Main Article Content

S. S. Yaru
I. K. Adegun

Abstract

This paper analyzed biogas and the digestate from cattle dung after anaerobic digestion. Eight kilograms (8 kg) of sun- dried cattle dung mixed with equal volume of water was subjected to anaerobic digestion for 14 days in a digester made of mild steel. The digester had a diameter of 0.3 m, 0.6 m height and 2 mm thickness. The biogas resulting from this setup was daily tested and finally burnt with a blue flame on the 13th day of incubation. The biogas was refined through sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. In the chromatographic analysis, the raw biogas produced 56.20% CH4, 39.51% CO2, 1.92% CO, 1.84% H2S and 0.53% NH3. The refined one comprised 70.28% CH4, 27.82% CO2, 1.55% CO, 0.34% H2S and 0.00% NH3. The specific gas constant (Ri) of the biogas increased from 0.3027 kJ/kgK at the raw stage to 0.3459 kJ/kgK when refined. Similarly, the cv improved from 0.9082 kJ/kgK to 1.0376 kJ/kgK that of cp from 1.2080 kJ/kgK to 1.3803 kJ/kgK and the values for the ratio of the specific heats agreed with the standard values of perfect polyatomic and diatomic gases. The calorific values of the biogases in the same order were 19.15MJ/m3 and 22.62MJ/m3. The sun-dried cattle dung and the digestate analyses with atomic absorption spectrophotometer showed respectively 0.13 and 0.20 for Fe (%), 0.49 and 0.55 Ca (%), 0.14 and 0.32 K (%), 0.28 and 0.34 Na (%) and 0.59 and 1.46 P (%) while the values for Co and Mn remained at 0.0001% and 0.03% respectively. The Kjedahl test results for N2 (%) were 1.06 and 1.40 while the oil (%) Soxhlet test results were 2.48 and 0.16 respectively. It was therefore concluded that the digestate had higher values of nutrients than the undigested cattle dung.

Article Details

Section
Articles

References

Beddoes, J. C., Bracmort, K. S., Burns, R. T. and Lazarus, W. F. (2007), An Analysis of Energy Production Costs from Anaerobic Digestion Systems on U. S. Livestock Production Facilities, National Resources Conservation Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Technical Note, No. 1

Budiyono, Widiasa, I. N., Johari, S. and Sunrso (2010), The Inuence of total Solids Content on Biogas Yield from Cattle Manure Using Rumen Fluid Inoculums, Energy Research Journal, 1(1): 6 – 11

Dahunsi, S. O., Alfa, M. I., Adie, D. B., Oranusi, U. S., and Ajayi, S. A. (2013), Evaluation of Biofertilization from the mesophilic Co-Digestion of Food Waste and Human Excreta, Challenges in Energy Supply and Infrastructural Development in Developing Countries, Proceedings of the 3rd Biennial Engineering Conference, Federal University of Technology, Minna.

Eastop, D. T. and McConkey, A. (1996), Applied Thermodynamics for Engineering Technologists, 5th Edition, ELBS Publishers, England

Itodo, I.N. (2007), Agricultural Energy Technology, Aboki Publishers, Makurdi: 18-23

Joel, R. (1996), Basic Engineering Thermodynamics, 5th Edition, Pearson Prentice Hall, London: 217-223

Landis, T. D., Haase, D. L. and Dumoreese, R. K. (2005), Plant Nutrient Testing and Analysis in Forest and Conservation Nurseries, USDA, Forest Service Proceedings, RMRS-pp 35

Lukehurst, C. T., Frost P.and Al Seadi, T. (2010), Utilization of Digestate from Biogas Plants as Biofertilizer, IEA Bioenergy, Impressum, pp. 6

Madlener, R., Michelsen, C. and Sunak, Y., (2011), Modeling the Spatial Diffusion of Agricultural Biogas Plants, E. ON Energy Research Center Series, Volume 2, Issue 1

Manonmani, P., Muazu, L., Kamaraj, M. C., Goel, M. and Elangomathavan, R. (2017), Biogas Production Potential of Food Waste, International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology, 2(2): 707-711

McCauley, A. Jones, C. and Jacobsen, J. (2009), Plant Nutrient Functions and Deciency and Toxicity Symptoms, Nutrient Management Modue, No 9, Montana State University, Extension, Bozeman, MT 59717

Mckenzie, R. (1998), Essential Plant Nutrients, Crop Nutrition and Fertilizer Requirements, Soil Fertility/Crop Nutrition, Alberta, Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, Lethbridge

Musa, B. and Raji, H. M. (2016), Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Biogas Produces from Three Organic Wastes, International journal of Renewable Energy Research, 6(1): 299-305

Ozor, O. C., Agah, M. V., Ogbu, K. I., Nnachi, A. U., Udu-ibiam, O. E. and Agwu, M.M. (2014), Biogas Production Using Cow Dung from Abakaliki Abattoir in South Eastern Nigeria, International Journal of Scientic & Technology Research, 3(10): 237-239


Prasad, R. D. (2012), Empirical Study on Factors Affecting Biogas Production, International Scholarly Network, ISRN Renewable Energy, Vol. 2012, Article ID 136959

Raja, A. S. and Lee, R. L. C. (2012), Biomethanation of Water Hyacinth using Additives under Forced Mixing in a Bioreactor, Int., J. Chem. Res., 2012vi02i4 (15-24): 15- 24 Available online@www.ijcsr.co.in

Rajput, R. K. ( 2011 ) , A Textbook of Engineering Thermodynamics, 4th Edition, Laxmi Publishers Ltd, New Delhi: 384-392

Roger, G. F. C. and Mayhew, Y. R. (1988), Engineering Thermodynamics, ELBS/Longman, Hong Kong

Sae, M., Koumanova, B., Simeonov, I. (2009), Anaerobic Co- Digestion of Wasted Tomatoes and Cattle Dung for Biogas Production, Journal of the University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 44(1): 55-60

Silva, J. A. and Uchida, R. (2000), Plant Nutrient Management, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa

Vindin, P., Mursec, B., Rozmac, C., Janzekovic, M. and Cus, F. (2008), Biogas Production With The Use of Mini Digester, Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, 28(1): 99-102.

Yadvika, Santosh, Sreekrishment, T. R., Kohl, S., and Rana V. (2004), Enhancement of Biogas Production from Solid Substrates Using Different Techniques – A Review, Bioresource Technolgy, XXX (2004) XXX – XXX

Yaru, S. S., Adewole, K. A. and Adegun, I. K. (2013), Comparative Study of Biogas from Cattle Dung and Mixture of Cattle Dung with Plantain Peels, Challenges in Energy Supply and Infrastructural Development in Developing Countries, Proceedings of the 3rd Biennial Engineering Conference, Federal University of Technology, Minna.

Yongabi, K.A., Harris, P.L., Lewis, D.M. and Agho, M.O. (2009), Preliminary Study on the Effect of Anaerobically Digeseted Cow Dung Slurry on the Antimicrobial Activity of Three Medicinal Plants, African Journal of Microbiology Research, 3(4): 168 – 174. Available online http://www.academicjournals.org/ajmr