Development of a Model For Predicting the Yield of Biodiesel During Biodiesel Production
Keywords:Biodiesel, Central Composite Design, Optimization, Transesterification, Yield
The production of methyl esters using vegetable oil or animal fat requires selective catalysis and controlled process conditions to meet biodiesel specifications and optimum yield. In this work, a suitable model for the optimization of biodiesel yield as a function of live independent process parameters namely: reaction time, reaction temperature, stir speed, catalyst concentration and methanol-oil ratio was developed using the central composite design and response surface methodology. Alkali transesterification was used for the conversion of palm olein virgin oil to biodiesel with 99.8% pure methanol and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as catalyst, methanol being in excess to oil ratio (4:1 to 9:1). The designed experiment was carried out using a four-level-five factor central composite design model and response surface methodology to study the interaction of the independent variables; reaction time (1-5 hours), temperature (40-90oC), stir speed (200-400 rpm), catalyst concentration (1-2 wt%) and methanol-oil ratio (4:1 to 9:1) on the biodiesel yield with the response in terms of percentage yield. A predictive model was formulated which correlates the yield of biodiesel to the five process variables. The regression model was found to be highly significant at 95% confidence level as correlation coefficient R (0.985), R-Squared (0.9700), adjusted R-Squared (0.9686) and predicted R-Squared (0.9653) was very close to 1. This is an indication that very small deviation exists between the experimental and predicted values. Results obtained from the model output was in good agreement with experimental values hence the developed model can be employed to predict the yield of biodiesel.
Akusu, O.M and Kiin-Kabari D.B. (2013). Effect of storage period on selected functional, chemical stability and sensory properties of bush mango (Irvingia gabonensis) seed flour. Journal of Food Science and Technology 4 (6):136-140
Alakali, J.S, Kucha C.T and Rabiu I.A. (2015). Effect of drying Temperature on The Nutritional quality of Moringa Oleifera leaves. African journal of food science 9(7): 395-399.
AOAC (1990). Ofï€cial Methods of analysis of the association of official analytical chemists, 14th edition, AOAC, Arlington, Virginia, USA
Antonio Vega-GÃ¡lvez, Jessica LÃ³pez, Kong Ah-Hen, MarÃa JosÃ© Torres and Roberto Lemus-Mondaca (2014). Thermodynamic Properties, Sorption Isotherms and Glass Transition Temperature of Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) Food Technol. Biotechnol. 52(1): 83â€“92.
Burubai, W and Amber B. (2013). Effect of oven drying on the viscosity of okra (Abelnoschu esculentus. Journal of food process technology 4(12): 287 â€“ 291.
Burubai W. and Etekpe, G.W. (2014) microwave-drying behavior of African nutmey (mondoramyristice) and ogbono (ivingia gabonensis) kernels. Advanced journal of agricultural Research 2(12):189-196.
Coffman CW, Garcia VV (1977). Functional properties and amino acid content of a protein isolate from mungbean four.Journal of Food Technology,12(2):473-484.
Delcour J. A., Vansteelandt J., Hythier M.-C., AbÃ©cassis J., Sindic M., Deroanne C., (2000), Fractionation and Reconstitution Experiments Provide Insight into the Role of Gluten and Starch Interactions in Pasta Quality, J.Agric. Food Chem. 48: 3767-3773
Demiray, E., Y. Tulek, and Y. Yilmaz.(2013). Degradation kinetics of lycopene, Î²-carotene and ascorbic acid in tomatoes during hot air drying. LWT-Food Science and Technology 50(1):172-176.
Discala, K., Vega-GÃ¡lvez, A., Uribe E., Oyanadel, R., Miranda, M. and Vergara, J. (2011). Changes of quality characteristics of pepino fruit (Solanummuricatum) during Convective drying. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 46:746-753.
Eke O.S and Akobundu EHT (1998). Functional properties of African Yam Bean (Spnenostyhs stenocarpa) Seed Flour as affected by processing. J.Food Chem., 48:337-340.
Famurewa, J.A.V and Raji, A.O. (2011). Effect of drying methods on the physical- chemical properties of soy flour. African journal of Biotechnology 10(25): 5015-5019.
Franklin Brian, Apea-Bah, Ibokoduro, William Eclis and Osiesafo-kantanka (2009). Principle components analysis and the age at harvest effects on quality of gari from elite cassava varieties in Ghana. African Journals biotechnology 8(9):1943- 1949.
Gamman P.M, Sherrigton K.B (1990). The science of food. An introduction to food science, Nutrition and micro biology 3rd edition pernagamonpress, oxford and Newyork. 104-115.
Giami S.Y, Bekebim D.A (1992). Proximate composition and functional properties of raw and processed full â€“ fat fluted pumpkin (Telfarra accidentals) seed four Journal Science of Food Agric. 59:321â€“325.
Giami S.Y, Okonwo V.I, Akusu M.O (1994). Chemical composition and functional properties of four, heat treated and partially proteolysed wild mango (irvingia gabonensis) seed four .Journal of Food chemical. 49:237â€“243
Gumus R.H and Ketebe E (2013): The Effect of temperature on drying rate of agro food corn (maize) and ogbono (irvingia Gabonners): 10 SR Journal of Engineering 3(1): 36-42.
Joseph, K and O.C Aworh (1991). Composition sensory quality and respiration during ripening and storage of edible wild mango (irvingia gabonosis). International journal of food science and technology, 26(1): 337-342
Mckee, L. and Latner, T (2000). Underutilized sources of dietary fiber; A Review. Plant Food Human Nutrition, 55:85. Doi10.10231A:1008144310986
Midilli A, Kucuk H, Yapar Z (2002). A new model for single layer drying. Drying Technology; 20(7): 1503â€“ 1513
Okaka, J.C (1997). Cereal and Legume processing. 1st Edition, Obio printing and publishing company Enugu 140-152.
Okezie, J.C and Bello, A .B. (1998). Physico-chemical and functional properties of winged bean four and isolate compared with soy isolate. Journal of the science of food and Agric.50 (2): 253-255.
Sengev I A, Abu J O, Gernah, D. I. (2013) . Effect of moringa oleifera leaf powder supplementation on some quality characteristics of wheat bread. Food Nutr. Sci. 4(3):270-275
Vega-GÃ¡lvez, A. Di Scala, K. RodrÃguez, K. Lemus-Mondaca, R. Miranda,M. LÃ³pez, J. and PÃ©rez-Won, M. (2009). Effect of air-drying temperature on physico-chemical properties, antioxidant capacity, colour and total phenolic content of red pepper (Capsicumannuum, L. var. Hungarian). Food Chemistry 1174:647-653.
With the submission of a manuscript, the corresponding author confirms that the manuscript is not under consideration by another journal. With the acceptance of a manuscript, the Journal reserves the exclusive right of publication and dissemination of the information contained in the article. The veracity of the paper and all the claims therein is solely the opinion of the authors not the journal.